ESPAR Antenna-Based WSN Node With DoA Estimation Capability

In this paper, we present a low-cost energy-efficient electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna-based wireless sensor network (WSN) node designed for IEEE 802.15.4 standard that is capable of performing direction of arrival (DoA) estimation in real-life outdoor environments. To this end, we propose the WSN node architecture, design and realization that utilizes NXP JN5168 radio frequency (RF) wireless transceiver and a microcontroller integrated with ESPAR antenna beam-switching circuits. To incorporate DoA estimation capability into the developed single-board WSN node, power-pattern cross-correlation (PPCC) algorithm, that relies solely on received signal strength (RSS) values measured by the transceiver at the antenna output for every considered directional antenna radiation pattern, has been adapted and implemented in a simple microcontroller embedded within NXP JN5168 integrated circuit. Measurements conducted in an outdoor environment show that the proposed low-cost WSN node can successfully provide DoA estimation results, which may be used to enhance WSN capabilities in practical applications. The obtained root mean square (RMS) DoA estimation errors are 7.91°, 6.58° and 9.47° for distances between WSN nodes equal to 3 m , 5 m and 10 m respectively.

Miniaturization of ESPAR Antenna Using Low-Cost 3D Printing Process

In this paper, the miniaturized electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna is presented. The size reduction was obtained by embedding its active and passive elements in polylactic acid (PLA) plastic material commonly used in low-cost 3D printing. The influence of 3D printing process imperfections on the ESPAR antenna design is investigated and a simple yet effective method to compensate them has been proposed. An antenna prototype was fabricated and measured, which showed that the experimental and simulated results are in good agreement. Realized antenna is characterized by 5.6 dBi peak gain and reflection coefficient of -17.6 dB. Base radius reduction of 23% and occupied area reduction of 40% were achieved.

Miniaturization of ESPAR Antenna Using Low-Cost 3D Printing Process

M. Czeleń, M. Rzymowski , K. Nyka , Ł. Kulas – 2020

In this paper, the miniaturized electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna is presented. The size reduction was obtained by embedding its active and passive elements in polylactic acid (PLA) plastic material commonly used in low-cost 3D printing. The influence of 3D printing process imperfections on the ESPAR antenna design is investigated and a simple yet effective method to compensate them has been proposed. An antenna prototype was fabricated and measured, which showed that the experimental and simulated results are in good agreement. Realized antenna is characterized by 5.6 dBi peak gain and reflection coefficient of -17.6 dB. Base radius reduction of 23% and occupied area reduction of 40% were achieved.

Acknowledgement: This paper is a result of the AFarCloud project (www.afarcloud.eu) which has received funding from the ECSEL Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement No 783221. The JU receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden.

The document reflects only the authors' view and the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.

 

RSS-Based DoA Estimation Using ESPAR Antenna for V2X Applications in 802.11p Frequency Band

In this paper, we have proposed direction-of arrival (DoA) estimation of incoming signals for V2X applications in 802. 11p frequency band, based on recording of received signal strength (RSS) at electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna's output port. The motivation of the work was to prove that ESPAR antenna used to increase connectivity and security in V2X communication can be also used for DoA estimation. The numerical simulation results show that for every proposed radiation pattern we can obtain acceptable DoA estimation results, even with radiation pattern without strong maximum and deep minimum.

This work was supported by SECREDAS project that has received funding from the Electronic Component Systems for European Leadership Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No 783119. The Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Spain, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Tunisia, United Kingdom.

Acknowledgement: This paper is a result of the SECREDAS project (https://secredas-project.eu) which has received funding from the ECSEL Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement No 783119. The Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Germany, Spain, Finland, France, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sweden, Tunisia, United Kingdom.

The document reflects only the authors' view and the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.

Simple Superstrate Antenna for Connectivity Improvement in Precision Farming Applications

In this paper, a concept of a simple circularly polarized antenna with partially reflecting surface (PRS) has been adopted for precision farming applications. The investigation contains an analysis of the dependence of the antenna performance on the elements number in the PRS structure in X- and Ka-band frequencies. Especially meaningful parameters from point-to-point connectivity perspective are axial ratio less than 3 dB and high gain of the antenna. Simulation results show that all antennas proposed in the paper comply with these requirements providing the gain greater than 13 dBic in any case. All of the presented designs have high efficiency and also are characterized by a compact size and lightweight.

Acknowledgement: This paper is a result of the AFarCloud project (www.afarcloud.eu) which has received funding from the ECSEL Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement No 783221. The JU receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden.

The document reflects only the authors' view and the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.

Validation of a virtual test environment for C2X communication under radio jamming conditions

M. Tarkowski , M. Rzymowski , Ł. Kulas , K. Nyka , M. Borawski, P. Kwapisiewicz, W. Piechowski, G. Temme, S. Khan, D. Behnecke, M. Mahmod – 2020

In this paper, we propose a novel car-2-x communication security testing methodology in the physical layer of wireless systems. The approach is dedicated to automated testing of autonomous vehicles and it is essential for such complex systems operation, especially with regard to safety and security issues. It is based on scenario-driven testing in virtual and real test environments created from collected or simulated data. The presented approach is dedicated for reducing the time and costs of testing and generates a number of potential situations to examine the autonomous system behavior with regard to the wireless communication security. The conducted test results compare some exemplary scenarios, which involve 802.11p C2X communication in presence of
intentional interferences, which are realized in different configurations: SiL, HiL and in-field measurements.

Acknowledgement: This paper is a result of the SCOTT project (www.scott-project.eu) which has received funding from the Electronic Component Systems for European Leadership Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No 737422. This Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and Austria, Spain, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Netherlands, Belgium, Norway.

The document reflects only the authors' view and the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.

Diagonalized Macromodels in Finite Element Method for Fast Electromagnetic Analysis of Waveguide Components

K. Nyka Electronics – 2019
A new technique of local model-order reduction (MOR) in 3-D finite element method (FEM) for frequency-domain electromagnetic analysis of waveguide components is proposed in this paper. It resolves the problem of increasing solution time of the reduced-order system assembled from macromodels created in the subdomains, into which an analyzed structure is partitioned. This problem becomes particularly relevant for growing size and count of the macromodels, and when they are cloned in multiple locations of the structures or are used repeatedly in a tuning and optimization process. To significantly reduce the solution time, the diagonalized macromodels are created by means of the simultaneous diagonalization and subsequently assembled in the global system. For the resulting partially diagonal matrix, an efficient dedicated solver based on the Schur complement technique is proposed. The employed MOR method preserves frequency independence of the macromodels, which is essential for efficient diagonalization, as it can be performed once for the whole analysis bandwidth. The numerical validation of the proposed procedures with respect to accuracy and speed was carried out for varying size and count of macromodels. An exemplary finite periodical waveguide structure was chosen to investigate the influence of macromodel cloning on the resultant efficiency. The results show that the use of the diagonalized macromodels provided a significant solution speedup without any loss of accuracy

DoA Estimation Using Reconfigurable Antennas in Millimiter-Wave Frequency 5G Systems

M. Rzymowski , K. Trzebiatowski, K. Nyka , Ł. Kulas – 2019

To achieve low latency and high throughputs, future 5G systems will have to utilize complex antenna systems able to provide beamforming and direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation capabilities. Most of the concepts available in the literature rely on analog or digital beamforming, which is well developed and can be used both at a base station and in a user terminal. However, in applications, in which energy-efficiency or cost is one of the key concerns, the use of traditional beamforming systems is limited. To overcome this limitation, reconfigurable antennas can be used as they rely on a simple but effective concept, in which a transceiver is connected to a single input port and beamforming capabilities are enabled by a number of passive elements electronically switched via transceiver’s digital input-output ports. In the article, we show how simple single-input mm-wave reconfigurable antenna can be used to provide not only beamforming but also DoA capabilities relying on received signal strength measurements. Therefore, the proposed approach can be applied in future 5G millimeter-wave nodes or gateways, in which low-cost and power-efficiency are important.

Acknowledgement: This paper is a result of the SCOTT project (www.scott-project.eu) which has received funding from the Electronic Component Systems for European Leadership Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No 737422. This Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and Austria, Spain, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Netherlands, Belgium, Norway.

The document reflects only the authors' view and the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.

Improved RSS-Based DoA Estimation Accuracy in Low-Profile ESPAR Antenna Using SVM Approach

In this paper, we have shown how the overall performance of direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation using lowprofile electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna, which has been proposed for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, can significantly be improved when support vector machine (SVM) approach is applied. Because the SVM-based DoA estimation method used herein relies solely on received signal strength (RSS) values recorded at the antenna output port for different directional radiation patterns produced by the antenna steering circuit, the algorithm is well-suited for IoT nodes based on inexpensive radio transceivers. Measurement results indicate that, although the antenna can provide 8 unique main beam directions, SVM-based DoA of unknown incoming signals can successfully be estimated with good accuracy in a fast way using limited number of radiation patterns. Consequently, such an approach can be used in efficient location-based security methods in Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications.

Acknowledgement: This paper is a result of the SCOTT project (scott-project.eu) which has received funding from the Electronic Component Systems for European Leadership Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No 737422. This Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and Austria, Spain, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Netherlands, Belgium, Norway.

The document reflects only the authors' view and the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.

Improved RSS-Based DoA Estimation Accuracy in Low-Profile ESPAR Antenna Using SVM Approach

In this paper, we have shown how the overall performance of direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation using lowprofile electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna, which has been proposed for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, can significantly be improved when support vector machine (SVM) approach is applied. Because the SVM-based DoA estimation method used herein relies solely on received signal strength (RSS) values recorded at the antenna output port for different directional radiation patterns produced by the antenna steering circuit, the algorithm is wellsuited for IoT nodes based on inexpensive radio transceivers. Measurement results indicate that, although the antenna can provide 8 unique main beam directions, SVM-based DoA of unknown incoming signals can successfully be estimated with good accuracy in a fast way using limited number of radiation patterns. Consequently, such an approach can be used in efficient location-based security methods in Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications.