In this study, electrolyte-supported (Cell A) and anode-supported (Cell B) micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) based on the La9.8Si5.7Mg0.3O26±δ (LSMO) electrolyte is built through an extrusion and dip-coating processes. The formulations and process conditions for these cells are established and optimized. Both cell configurations show no visible delamination or cracking, and reaction zones and inter-diffusion of any species are absent at the interfaces of the multilayer structures. The micro-tubes LSMO and LSMO-NiO have a high flexural strength of ~70 MPa. Cell B with a 3.33 mm outer diameter, a 12 μm LSMO electrolyte layer, a ~300 μm LSMO-NiO functional anode layer, a 9 μm NiO current-collector layer, and a 44 μm La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ cathode layer has superior electrochemical performances than does Cell A. The polarization resistance (Rp) value for Cell B accounts for 67.6% and 50.5% of the total resistance (Rt) value at 700 °C and 895 °C, respectively, suggesting that Rp dominates at low temperatures and ohmic resistance (Ro) and Rp values are equally important at high temperatures. Cell B's open-circuit voltages (OCVs) are slightly below the theoretical value due to poor sealing of cells. The maximum power densities (MPDs) of Cell B, increase with increasing operating temperature and are 0.12, 0.24, and 0.27 W cm−2 at 750 °C, 850 °C, and 895 °C, respectively. Compared to Cell A, Cell B displays lower OCV values but higher MPD (0.27 W cm−2 vs. 0.06 W cm−2 at 895 °C) due to its significantly lower Ro value, mainly due to the thin layer of LSMO electrolytes.
This work evaluates the effects of the sintering temperature (800 °C, 900 °C, 1000 °C) of SrTi1-xFexO3-δ (x = 0.35, 0.5, 0.7) porous electrodes on their electrochemical performance as potential oxygen electrode materials of solid oxide cells. The materials were prepared by a solid-state reaction method and revealed the expected cubic perovskite structure. After milling, the powders were characterised by a sub-micrometre particle size with high sinter-activity. It was shown that the lowest area specific resistance was achieved after sintering SrTi0.65Fe0.35O3 electrodes at 1000 °C, and SrTi0.5Fe0.5O3 and SrTi0.30Fe0.70O3 electrodes at 800 °C, which can be considered to be a relatively low temperature. In general, EIS measurements showed that increasing the Fe content results in lowered electrode polarisation and a decrease of the series resistance. Even though the studied materials have much lower total conductivities than state-of-the-art electrode materials (e.g. (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3), the polarisation resistances obtained in this work can be considered low.
The commercially available metal-oxide TGS sensors are widely used in many applications due to thefact that they are inexpensive and considered to be reliable. However, they are partially selective and theirresponses are influenced by various factors,e.g. temperature or humidity level. Therefore, it is importanttodesign a proper analysis system of the sensor responses. In this paper, the results of examinations of eightcommercial TGS sensors combined in an array and measured over a period of a few months for the purposeof prediction of nitrogen dioxide concentration are presented. The measurements were performed at differentrelative humidity levels. PLS regression was employed as a method of quantitative analysis of the obtainedsensor responses. The results of NO2concentration prediction based on static and dynamic responses ofsensors are compared. It is demonstrated that it is possibleto predict the nitrogen dioxide concentrationdespite the influence of humidity
The design of efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is an essential task in developing sustainable water splitting technology for the production of hydrogen. In this work, manganese cobalt spinel oxides with a general formula of MnxCo3-xO4 (x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2) were synthesised via a soft chemistry method. Non-equilibrium mixed powder compositions were produced, resulting in high electrocatalytic activity. The oxygen evolution reaction was evaluated in an alkaline medium (1 M KOH). It was shown that the addition of Mn (up to x ≤ 1) to the cubic Co3O4 phase results in an increase of the electrocatalytic performance. The lowest overpotential was obtained for the composition designated as MnCo2O4, which exhibited a dual-phase structure (~30% Co3O4 + 70% Mn1.4Co1.6O4): the benchmark current density of 10 mA cm-2 was achieved at the relatively low overpotential of 327 mV. The corresponding Tafel slope was determined to be ~79 mV dec-1. Stabilities of the electrodes were tested for 25 hours, showing degradation of the MnCo2O4 powder, but no degradation, or even a slight activation for other spinels.
In this work, the infiltration technique was used to produce hydrogen electrodes for solid oxide cells. Different infiltration methodologies were tested in order to try to shorten the infiltration cycle time. The porous scaffolds used for infiltration were based on highly porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) obtained by etching the reduced nickel from the Ni-YSZ cermet in HNO3 acid. The support had a complex structure which included a ~130 µm porous functional layer with small pores and a ~320 µm thick supporting layer with large pores. Infiltrations have been carried out using aqueous nickel nitrate solutions. Various infiltration procedures were used, differing in temperature/time profiles. The results show that slow evaporation is crucial for obtaining a homogeneous material distribution leading to high-quality samples. A longer evaporation time promotes the proper distribution of nickel throughout the porous scaffold. The shortening of the heat treatment procedure leads to blockage of the pores and not-uniform nickel distribution.
The aim of this paper was to investigate an influence of the nanocrystalline Ce0.8A0.2O2-δ (A = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) materials on the direct internal reforming of biogas in SOFC. Structural analysis of fabricated compounds has been done. An in-situ analysis of a composition of outlet gases from operating SOFC was performed using FTIR spectroscopy with simultaneous electrical tests. It was found out, that type of dopant strongly affects biogas reforming process. The differences in absolute values of current density resulted mostly from a microstructure and probably phase composition of a deposited layers. Fuel cells with Ce0.8Co0.2O2-δ and Ce0.8Ni0.2O2-δ additional layers presented the highest drop of current density after switching from hydrogen to biogas, but simultaneously they were the most stable in time. Additional chemical analysis revealed that steam reforming and methane pyrolysis might be dominating reactions while working in biogas atmosphere.
Iron doped strontium titanates (SrTi1-xFexO3-δ) are an interesting mixed ionic-electronic conductor
model used to study basic oxygen reduction/oxidation reactions. In this work, we performed an
impedance spectroscopy study on symmetrical porous SrTi0.30Fe0.70O3-δ (STF70) electrodes on a ceriabased
electrolyte. The sample was measured in varying oxygen concentration: from 0.3% to 100% in
800 °C - 500 °C temperature range. Low polarisation resistance (e.g. <125 mΩ cm2 at 600 °C in the air)
values were obtained, showing an overall high performance of the STF70 electrode. Impedance data
analysis was assisted by the distribution of relaxation times method, which allowed an equivalent
electrical circuit to be proposed comprising of two resistance/constant phase element sub-circuits
connected in series. The medium frequency contribution, with a characteristic frequency of
~2000 Hz at 800 °C in air, originates most probably from possible surface diffusion followed by charge
transfer reaction limitation, whereas the lower frequency contribution (characteristic frequency <10 Hz)
is due to gas-phase diffusion.
In this work, the influence of the synthesis conditions on the structure, morphology, and electrocatalytic performance for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) of Mn-Co-based films is studied. For this purpose, Mn-Co nanofilm is electrochemically synthesised in a one-step process on nickel foam in the presence of metal nitrates without any additives. The possible mechanism of the synthesis is proposed. The morphology and structure of the catalysts are studied by various techniques including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The analyses show that the as-deposited catalysts consist mainly of oxides/hydroxides and/or (oxy)hydroxides based on Mn2+, Co2+, and Co3+. The alkaline post-treatment of the film results in the formation of Mn-Co (oxy)hydroxides and crystalline Co(OH)2 with a β-phase hexagonal platelet-like shape structure, indicating a layered double hydroxide structure, desirable for the OER. Electrochemical studies show that the catalytic performance of Mn-Co was dependent on the concentration of Mn versus Co in the synthesis solution and on the deposition charge. The optimised Mn-Co/Ni foam is characterised by a specific surface area of 10.5 m2·g−1, a pore volume of 0.0042 cm3·g−1, and high electrochemical stability with an overpotential deviation around 330–340 mV at 10 mA·cm−2geo for 70 h.
This work evaluates electrodeposited and differently treated Mn-Co catalysts for their oxygen evolution
reaction activity. Catalysts are evaluated in the as-deposited and heat treated state: after 350 C and
600 C. Results show that the highest electrochemical activity is obtained for the as-deposited Mn-Co
oxyhydroxide, which possibly possess a layered double hydroxide structure. After the heat treatment
process, especially after 600 C, the electrochemical performance decreases considerably.
W publikacji przedstawiono motywację podjętych badań nad podstawianymi żelazem tytanianem strontu do zastosowań w wysokotemperaturowych ogniwach paliwowych oraz ukazano wstępne wyniki badań elektrycznych oraz elektrochemicznych.