Be fearless: Positive affect as a mediator between venturesomeness and self-efficacy in future entrepreneurs and managers

Introduction and objectives Self-efficacy, personality and different affect states in entrepreneurs and managers are important factors for effectiveness and well-being. The aim of the study was to examine in young adults during entrepreneurship-related education, the relationships between venturesomeness and self-efficacy, and the mediating effects of positive affect and positive emotions (joviality, self-assurance, attentiveness) on these relationships. Method One hundred and fifty-three participants (mean age 22 years) completed questionnaires that assessed venturesomeness, general self-efficacy, positive affect (measured as a state), and positive emotions. Bootstrapping analyses with simple and multiple mediators were conducted, controlled for gender, to estimate the indirect effects of positive affect and positive emotions on venturesomeness and general self-efficacy. Results Venturesomeness was significantly correlated with self-efficacy. Positive affect (model 1), joviality and self-assurance, but not attentiveness (model 2), were complete mediators in the relationship between venturesomeness and self-efficacy. Conclusion The present study provides new evidence that heightened venturesomeness is related to higher levels of positive affect, self-assurance and joviality. Venturesomeness, therefore, may strengthen self-efficacy in young people during entrepreneurship-related education, and positive emotions may lead to an aware use of resources, including self-efficacy. These results may stimulate young people to be brave and to try new experiences.

Individual Resources and Intercultural Interactions

B. Basińska – 2017
The work environment in multinational corporations (MNCs) is specific and demanding including intercultural interactions with co-workers and clients and using a foreign language. Some individual resources can help in dealing with these circumstances. Individual resources refer to personal dispositions, competencies and prior experiences. With regard to previous studies, a caravan of personal resources, namely Psychological Capital (Luthans et al., Pers Psychol 60 (3): 541–572, 2007), can reveal the source of inconsistencies in results in a multicultural work setting. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between positive psychological capital and other individual and professional resources (functional language, prior international experiences, age, and job tenure), which can help employees to deal with a demanding multinational work environment and particularly with intercultural interactions. The results of a quantitative study among a Polish group of employees in MNCs have demonstrated that psychological capital was slightly correlated with their international experience and moderately correlated with proficiency in a foreign language used in the corporation as a functional language. The psychological capital of the respondents was not correlated with age, but was slightly correlated with their job tenure. The differences between the two subgroups depended on the job position, indicating that the supervisors had a higher level of psychological capital than employees (large effect size) as well as having a higher level of resilience, hope and optimism (moderate effect sizes). Including some shortcomings of the study, the association between positive psychological capital and other individual resources was discussed and some practical implications were also indicated. The research suggests that organizations can reap benefits from the individual resources of employees and can play an active role in the development of psychological capital. Thus, they may create their competitive advantage on the labour market.

Intercultural interactions in multinational subsidiaries

M. Rozkwitalska, M. Chmielecki, S. Przytula, L. Sulkowski, B. Basińska Baltic Journal of Management – 2017
Purpose - Our aim is to show how individuals perceive the quality of intercultural interactions at work in multinational subsidiaries, and to address the question of what actually prevails in their accounts, i.e. ‘the dark side’ or ‘the bright side’. Design/methodology/approach - We report the findings from five subsidiaries located in Poland and interviews with 68 employees of these companies. Findings - The ‘bright side’ dominated the interviewees’ accounts. The phenomenon of high social identity complexity or common ingroup identity can help explain the findings. The results also shed some new light on the associations between the context of subsidiaries and the perception of the quality of intercultural interactions.Originality/value – The accounts of intercultural interactions are analyzed to illuminate some significant foundations of how individuals perceive such interactions. The study provides a qualitative lens and highlights the positive approach to intercultural interactions. It may redress the imbalance in prior research and satisfy the need for positive cross-cultural scholarship.

Positivity and job burnout in emergency personnel: examining linear and curvilinear relationship

B. Basińska , E. Gruszczyńska – Polish Psychological Bulletin – 2017
The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between the ratio of job-related positive to negative emotions (positivity ratio) and job burnout is best described as linear or curvilinear. Participants were 89 police officers (12% women) and 86 firefighters. The positivity ratio was evaluated using the Job-related Affective Wellbeing Scale (Van Katwyk, Fox, Spector, & Kelloway, 2000). Exhaustion and disengagement, two components of job burnout, were measured using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (Demerouti, Mostert, & Bakker, 2010). The results of regression analysis revealed that curvilinear relationships between the positivity ratio and two components of job burnout appeared to better fit the data than linear relationships. The relationship between the positivity ratio and exhaustion was curvilinear with a curve point at around 2.1. A similar curvilinear relationship, but with a lower curve point, i.e., around 1.8, was observed for disengagement. It seems that beyond certain values there may be hidden costs of maintaining positive emotions at work. Also, the unequal curve points for subscales suggest that different dimensions of work-related functioning are variously prone to such costs.

Thriving in multicultural workplace

B. Basińska – 2017
Thriving at work is defined as the psychological state that links both a sense of vitality and learning. The vitality component of thriving may be seen as positive energy, while learning enhances a sense of competence and efficacy. Thriving sheds new light on individual psychological functioning and the experience of growth in the work context. Thriving at work promotes growth through playing an active role in interaction with other people. In particular, thriving can offer a positive insight into social interactions at work and the subjective well-being of employees in a multicultural work setting. The aim of the quantitative study was to examine the relationship between thriving (proximal factor) and subjective well-being (distal factor) including its affective and cognitive aspects in the model of intercultural interaction at work. Correlational design was applied. The results of the studies conducted in a quantitative design indicated that learning is more salient than vitality in a multicultural work setting. The findings suggest that among these two components of thriving, learning is more salient than vitality. Thriving was associated with affective well-being, specifically, vitality was moderately associated with positive and negative emotions while learning was slightly associated with positive emotions. Additionally, the different role of the two components of thriving in the cognitive aspect of subjective well-being was revealed. Organizational satisfaction (overall satisfaction) was dependent on vitality. In contrast, job-related interpersonal satisfaction (satisfaction with work in a multicultural environment) was dependent on both components of thriving, vitality and learning. To the best of the author’s knowledge this is the first study to empirically test thriving in the model of intercultural interaction at work. Specifically it focuses on proximal (vitality and learning) and distal outcomes (subjective well-being).

Emocje w pracy: rozszerzenie teorii Wymagania – Zasoby w Pracy

B. Basińska – 2016
Podjęty przeze mnie problem dotyczy optymalnego funkcjonowania w pracy, reprezentowany przez dobrostan zawodowy, który jest kierowany przez dwa procesy: deterioracji zdrowia i motywacji. Te procesy mogą być mediowane przez emocje w kontekście pracy. Emocje są odpowiedzią na nadmierne wymagania oraz na niewystarczające zasoby organizacyjne (szacunek, rozwój kariery i pewność pracy). Emocje jako funkcja walencji i aktywacji są rdzennym i proksymalnym komponentem dobrostanu zawodowego, pierwszym sygnałem pozytywnych i negatywnych zmian w dystalnych wymiarach dobrostanu zawodowego, reprezentowanych przez wypalenie zawodowe i zaangażowanie w pracę. W badaniu przyjęłam plan poprzeczny, w którym wzięły udział dwie grupy, grupa policjantów (n = 414) i heterogeniczna grupa pracowników (n = 271). Natomiast w przyjętym planie dwufazowym ze średnim odstępem czasu 6 tygodni uczestniczyła heterogeniczna grupa pracowników (n = 151). Wyniki moich badań pokazują, że w sytuacji pracy dominuje pozytywny bilans emocjonalny z przewagą emocji o niskiej aktywacji. Te emocje są dwukrotnie silniej współzależne niż emocje o wysokiej aktywacji. Dodatkowo emocje pozytywne mogą anulować działanie emocji negatywnych, teraz i w przyszłości. Trzy profile emocjonalne, pozytywny, negatywny i mieszany, są związane z różnymi poziomami wypalenia zawodowego i zaangażowania w pracę. Odpowiednie konfiguracje emocji pełnią rolę mediatora w relacji pomiędzy charakterystyką pracy a dobrostanem zawodowym. Dla wypalenia zawodowego (charakterystyka pracy – wyczerpanie i zdystansowanie) wiodące są emocje o niskiej aktywacji. Natomiast dla zaangażowania w pracę (zasoby organizacyjne – wigor, oddanie, zaabsorbowanie) kluczowe są emocje pozytywne o wysokiej aktywacji uzupełniane emocjami negatywnymi o niskiej aktywacji. Odnotowałam krzywoliniową relację pomiędzy bilansem emocjonalnym a wyczerpaniem i wigorem (energetyczne aspekty procesów straty i rozwoju zdrowia). I prostoliniową relację pomiędzy charakterystyką pracy a dystalnymi wymiarami dobrostanu zawodowego takimi jak zdystansowanie, oddanie i zaabsorbowanie. Teoretyczna kontrybucja pracy pokazuje, że zarówno walencja, jak i aktywacja są istotne w zrozumieniu procesu straty, ochrony i rozwoju zdrowia w perspektywie hedonistycznej i eudajmonistycznej. Implikacje praktyczne mogą pokazać, jak kadra zarządzająca może lepiej wykorzystać potencjał pracowników dla ich zdrowia i rozwoju, a także dla wzrostu organizacji.

Intercultural interactions at multinational corporations' workplace: Grounded theory.

M. Rozkwitalska, B. Basińska , M. Chmielecki, S. Przytuła, Ł. Sułkowski Journal of Positive Management – 2016
environments is a new challenge for employees and managers. The aim of the paper is to analyze the social interactions in multicultural environments of multinational corporations (MNCs) as well as to propose a model of intercultural social interactions in MNCs’ specifi c context. Design/methodology/approach: The grounded theory approach was applied to create a model of intercultural interactions in MNCs. The data was obtained during the qualitative research based on comparative case studies collected in 5 MNCs’ subsidiaries. Findings: The proposed model refers to the following concepts: 1) Lazarus’s transactional stress theory states that job demands may be assessed as hindrances or challenges. The specifi c job demands that aff ect intercultural interactions are multilingualism, cultural diversity, cross-cultural adjustment and team work. 2) Positive psychological capital and an individual’s acquired resources are in relation with intercultural interactions. 3) According to Bandura’s agentic perspective, individuals take an active role in shaping social interactions and work environment. 4) Being an agent relates to Spreitzer’s thriving concept that can serve as a mechanism of relations between the interactions undertaken due to MNCs’ specifi c job demands and their outcomes. Research limitations/implications: The qualitative methodology applied to the research does not allow for a broader generalization of the results. The outcomes of intercultural interactions depend mainly on how individuals assess their job demands in MNCs. Practical implications: Since the workplace in MNCs is abundant in learning opportunities, the managers of MNCs need to hire employees who exhibit needs for growth and development to boost thriving in their organizations. Additionally, these managers should search for employees with experience of multicultural settings and a signifi cant capacity of positive psychological capital,thanks to which they are likely to benefi t more from intercultural social interactions. More concern should be put on training the employees’ language skills since it may build their self-eff icacy in intercultural interactions. Originality/value: The proposed model focuses on social interactions in MNCs’ unique context. The empirical fi ndings were interpreted with regard to psychological and sociological theories and the Positive Organizational Scholarship lens.

Job Demands, Engagement, and Turnover Intentions in Polish Nurses: The Role of Work-Family Interface

A. Dåderman, B. Basińska Frontiers in Psychology – 2016
Background: Poland has lower ratios of employed registered nurses per 1,000 inhabitants than the EU average. Polish nurses work under miserable conditions without assisting personnel, and they reconcile their professional demands with responsibilities for their families; 96% of them are women. Rationale/Aims: This study uses Hobfoll’s conservation of resources (CORs) theory to explain the role of various resources in the improvement of work conditions in the nursing profession. Work-family conflict (WFC) and family work conflict (FWC) threaten to deplete nurses’ resources. This paper set out to (1) examine the extent to which perceived job demands (workload and interpersonal conflicts at work) and engagement (vigor, dedication, and absorption) are associated with turnover intentions (the intention to leave the present workplace and the intention to leave the nursing profession); (2) attempt to determine whether levels of WFC and FWC moderate these associations. Design/Method: This study comprised 188 female registered nurses. The inclusion criterion was to live with a partner and/or have children. Results: WFC was moderately related to FWC. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only high job demands and low vigor were significantly associated with turnover intentions. WFC was experienced more intensively than FWC. Job demands, vigor, dedication, and turnover intentions had a strong effect on WFC, while absorption had a strong effect on FWC. However, levels of WFC and FWC did not significantly moderate these associations. Originality/Conclusion: The study produces new knowledge by examining a constellation of job demands, work engagement and WFC, which reflect the management of personal resources. Results from such a constellation in nurses from countries with a post-transformational economic system have not previously been discussed in the light of COR theory. Most importantly, we conclude that WFC does not intensify turnover intentions.

Kapitał psychologiczny a współpraca zawodowa z obcokrajowcami

B. Basińska – 2016
Organizacje nastawione na rozwój odkrywają, że kapitał psychologiczny personelu ogrywa coraz ważniejsza rolę. Kapitał psychologiczny jest karawaną zasobów: skuteczności, elastyczności, nadziei i optymizmu, które wspierając się wzajemnie skutkują efektywnym funkcjonowaniem w pracy. Wielokulturowe środowisko pracy w swej naturze jest pełne specyficznych wymagań, które wymagają dodatkowych wysiłków. Jednak pozytywne efekty tej pracy sprzyjają wartości dodanej zarówno dla samych pracowników, a przede wszystkim dla organizacji. Celem rozdziału jest pokazanie roli karawany zasobów tworzących kapitał psychologiczny personelu mających zawodowe relacje z obcokrajowcami. W związku z tym przedstawiono istotę kapitału psychologicznego, a w dalszej kolejności w odniesieniu do modelu interakcji międzykulturowych ukazano rolę kapitału psychologicznego w środowisku wielokulturowym pracy odwołując się do badań jakościowych i ilościowych. Wyniki badań pokazują, że zasoby osobiste mają tendencję do występowania razem i wzajemnego wzmacniania się, prowadząc do poszerzania zasobów i wzrostu potencjału jednostki. W kontekście pracy w środowisku wielokulturowym przejawia się to w coraz lepszym prosperowaniu (uczenie się i witalność) i osiąganiu coraz większego dobrostanu zawodowego (dobrostan afektywny i satysfakcja z pracy). Pracownicy wskazywali na łączenie zasobów, takich jak skuteczność i optymizm czy nadzieja i elastyczność. W wielokulturowym środowisku pracy dla personelu większe znaczenie mają własne zasoby związane z zachowaniem (skuteczność i elastyczność) niż zasoby energetyczne (nadzieja i optymizm).

More freedom – more investments. The relationship between the extent of fiscal autonomy with respect to own revenues and investment expenditures of Polish communes and cities with county rights

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between own revenues characterized by different levels of fiscal autonomy and investment expenditures of selected local government entities in Poland. Accordingly, the following research hypothesis was formulated: there is a relationship between the type of own revenue identified with respect to fiscal autonomy and the size of investment expenditures. Revenues characterized by low or no fiscal autonomy are more likely to be earmarked for current expenditures. The study encompasses the 2003–2011 period. Two groups of local government entities were analyzed: cities with county rights and communes (with the exception of city communes that are cities with county rights, constituting the first group). The calculations carried out demonstrated that in both analyzed groups the revenues characterized by extensive fiscal autonomy (EFA), such as revenues from the property tax, had the greatest impact on investment expenditure: in communes, an increase in revenue in this group by PLN 1,000,000 resulted in an increase in investment expenditure by PLN 2,180,000, while in cities with county rights it increased by PLN 1,320,000. The general conclusion is that local government entities should be granted the type of own revenues that they are allowed to structure to the greatest extent, since this is the type of revenues that most fully translates into investment activity, thus ensuring the strongest stimulus for development