Design of Resilient Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Systems

J. Rak , M. Jonsson, A. Vinel, K. Jurczenia – 2020
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have recently gained noticeable attention due to advantages in improving road traffic safety, shaping the road traffic and providing infotainment opportunities to travellers. However, transmission characteristics following from the IEEE 802.11p standard and the high mobility of VANET nodes remarkably reduce the lifetime, reach and capacity of wireless links, and often lead to simultaneous disruptions of communications at multiple links. In this chapter, we present a set of solutions to enhance the performance of VANETs (which can be applied independently of particular applications) concerning (a) design of the VANET infrastructure (location of road-side units—RSUs and gateways), (b) communications along vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) links and (c) resilience of VANET services to malicious human activities.

Disaster-Resilient Routing Schemes for Regional Failures

T. Gomes, D. Santos, R. Girão-Silva, L. Martins, B. Nedic, M. Gunkel, B. Vass, J. Tapolcai, J. Rak – 2020
Large-scale natural disasters can have a profound effect on the telecommunication services in the affected geographical area. Hence, it is important to develop routing approaches that may help in circumventing damaged regional areas of a network. This prompted the development of geographically diverse routing schemes and also of disaster-risk aware routing schemes. A minimum-cost geodiverse routing, where a minimum geographical distance value D is imposed between any intermediate element of one path and any element of the other path, is presented. Next, the problem of the calculation of a D-geodiverse routing solution which ensures a certain level of availability is tackled. An algorithm is described that either obtains a solution to that problem or the most available path pair satisfying the desired geographical distance value D—this can be useful for the specification of availability levels in Service Level Agreements. Finally, a case study is presented, in an optical network, to determine the cost increase in terminal equipment (transponders) of approaches to ensure a much larger separation of the paths (of the selected path pair), with respect to minimal length link-disjoint routing.

Enhancing Availability for Critical Services

T. Gomes, L. Martins, R. Girão-Silva, D. Tipper, A. Pašić, B. Vass, L. Garrote, U. Nunes, M. Zachariasen, J. Rak – 2020
Traditional approaches to provide classes of resilient service take the physical network availability as an input and then deploy redundancy and restoration techniques at various layers, often without full knowledge of mappings between layers. This makes it hard (and often inefficient) to ensure the high availability required by critical services which are typically a small fraction of the total traffic. Here, the innovative technique of embedding a higher availability substructure, designated the spine, into the network at the physical layer, is explored. In the spine-based approach, it is considered that high availability must begin at the physical level and then must be reinforced in upper layers. A recent disaster-resilience framework, named Framework for Disaster Resilience, which incorporates reliable network design (i.e. using the spine), disaster failure modelling and protection routing to improve the availability of critical services is discussed. Next, a proposal to select network links for availability upgrade to ensure high availability is presented. This is followed by a study assuming that if disaster-prone areas are known, they can be represented as obstacles which should be avoided when deploying the physical backbone of a communications network. Hence, a heuristic for a minimum-cost Euclidean Steiner tree taking into account the presence of soft obstacles is presented.

Fundamental Schemes to Determine Disjoint Paths for Multiple Failure Scenarios

T. Gomes, L. Jorge, R. Girão-Silva, J. Yallouz, P. Babarczi, J. Rak – 2020
Disjoint path routing approaches can be used to cope with multiple failure scenarios. This can be achieved using a set of k (k> 2) link- (or node-) disjoint path pairs (in single-cost and multi-cost networks). Alternatively, if Shared Risk Link Groups (SRLGs) information is available, the calculation of an SRLG-disjoint path pair (or of a set of such paths) can protect a connection against the joint failure of the set of links in any single SRLG. Paths traversing disaster-prone regions should be disjoint, but in safe regions it may be acceptable for the paths to share links or even nodes for a quicker recovery. Auxiliary algorithms for obtaining the shortest path from a source to a destination are also presented in detail, followed by the illustrated description of Bhandari’s and Suurballe’s algorithms for obtaining a pair of paths of minimal total additive cost. These algorithms are instrumental for some of the presented schemes to determine disjoint paths for multiple failure scenarios.

Fundamentals of Communication Networks Resilience to Disasters and Massive Disruptions

J. Rak , D. Hutchison, J. Tapolcai, R. Bruzgiene, M. Tornatore, C. Mas-Machuca, M. Furdek, P. Smith – 2020
Communication networks are exposed to a variety of massive failure events following from activities of nature, weather-induced disruptions, technology-implied problems, and malicious human activities. In this chapter, we first highlight the characteristics of these scenarios and discuss example failure events reported during the last three decades. Next, we explain the concept of network resilience and present an overview of major problems and related schemes further addressed in this monograph, concerning (a) measures and models for the analysis and evaluation of disaster-resilient networks, (b) techniques for design and update of disaster-resilient systems, (c) algorithms and schemes for resilient systems, and (d) advanced topics focusing, e.g. on emerging communication technologies.

Improving the Survivability of Carrier Networks to Large-Scale Disasters

A. de Sousa, J. Rak , F. Barbosa, D. Santos, D. Mehta – 2020
This chapter is dedicated to the description of methods aiming to improve the survivability of carrier networks to large-scale disasters. First, a disaster classification and associated risk analysis is described, and the disaster-aware submarine fibre-optic cable deployment is addressed aiming to minimize the expected costs in case of natural disasters. Then, the chapter addresses the improvement of the network connectivity resilience to multiple node failures caused by malicious human activities. Two improvement methods are described aiming to minimize the connectivity impact of any set of node failures. One method is based on the appropriate selection of a set of network nodes to be made robust to node attacks. The other is a topology design method aiming to select the most appropriate set of links, within a given fibre budget, that provide the best resilience to multiple node failures. The latter method can also be applied to the upgrade task of a current network topology.

Minimising the Churn Out of the Service by Using a Fairness Mechanism

The paper proposes an algorithm of bandwidth distribution, ensuring fairness to end-users in computer networks. The proposed algorithm divides users into satisfied and unsatisfied users. It provides fairness in terms of quality of experience (QoE) for satisfied users and quality of service (QoS) for unsatisfied users. In this paper, we present detailed comparisons relevant to service providers to show the advantages of the proposed algorithm over the popular max-min algorithm. Our algorithm is designed to provide service providers with a mechanism to minimize the number of end-user terminations of service, which is one of the most desired factors for service providers.

Optimization of Wireless Networks for Resilience to Adverse Weather Conditions

M. Pióro, E. Fitzgerald, I. Kalesnikau, D. Nace, J. Rak – 2020
In this chapter, we consider how adverse weather conditions such as rain or fog affect the performance of wireless networks, and how to optimize these networks so as to make them robust to these conditions. We first show how to analyze the weather conditions in order to make them useful for network optimization modelling. Using an example realistic network, we show how to optimize two types of wireless networks: free-space optical (FSO) networks and wireless mesh networks (WMN). The key difference between the two network types is that in WMNs, links interfere with each other, while in FSO networks, link rates may be assumed independent. We formulate optimization problems to protect each network type against adverse weather conditions, discuss solution methods to solve them and present a numerical study illustrating the considerations of the chapter.

Reinforced Secure Gossiping Against DoS Attacks in Post-Disaster Scenarios

C. Esposito, Z. Zhao, J. Rak IEEE Access – 2020
During and after a disaster, the perceived quality of communication networks often becomes remarkably degraded with an increased ratio of packet losses due to physical damages of the networking equipment, disturbance to the radio frequency signals, continuous reconfiguration of the routing tables, or sudden spikes of the network traffic, e.g., caused by the increased user activity in a post-disaster period. Several techniques have been introduced so far (mainly using data retransmission mechanisms) to tolerate such circumstances. Among them, gossiping has been shown to be efficient in the recovery from message losses. However, a conventional gossiping scheme may exhibit security problems, which can be exploited for further attacks (such as Denial of Service – DoS attack). For instance, the flooding method used by the gossiping can be used to forward the traffic towards many vulnerable nodes to drain their resources and compromise them. Typically, protection against DoS attacks is realized by using cryptographic primitives. However, their scalability limits and costs make them improper for emergency communications after a disaster. In this article, we introduce an approach based on reinforcement learning and game theory to protect the gossiping scheme from DoS attacks without incurring the costs of cryptographic primitives. In our method, nodes properly select which requests to satisfy, which in turn helps other nodes to avoid receiving manipulated gossip messages from malicious and colluded nodes. Additionally, our method operates without exploiting any cryptographic primitives, which prevents excessive energy waste that is undesired in post-disaster resilient networking. Simulation experiments performed in OMNeT++ confirmed the advantages of our approach over the reference schemes in terms of reliability, security, overhead, latency, and power efficiency.

Resilience of 5G Mobile Communication Systems to Massive Disruptions

T. Cinkler , A. Ladanyi, J. Rak , C. Esposito, G. Rizzo – 2020
This chapter discusses vital techniques to enhance the resilience of 5G systems. It starts with dependability assessment of 5G networks. Next, it describes (a) the frequency fallback technique to improve availability and survivability of 5G services, (b) segment interleaving scheme to enhance communications resilience between base stations and the remaining part of the network and (c) multi-operator protection to address the resilience issues in a multi-operator scenario when one of the operators fails to deliver services, and the backup service can be provided to its users by another operator. Finally, it focuses on energy-aware techniques for dynamic management of base station configuration and of load distribution aimed at maximizing network survivability in case of disaster.