Validation of a virtual test environment for C2X communication under radio jamming conditions

M. Tarkowski , M. Rzymowski , Ł. Kulas , K. Nyka , M. Borawski, P. Kwapisiewicz, W. Piechowski, G. Temme, S. Khan, D. Behnecke, M. Mahmod – 2020

In this paper, we propose a novel car-2-x communication security testing methodology in the physical layer of wireless systems. The approach is dedicated to automated testing of autonomous vehicles and it is essential for such complex systems operation, especially with regard to safety and security issues. It is based on scenario-driven testing in virtual and real test environments created from collected or simulated data. The presented approach is dedicated for reducing the time and costs of testing and generates a number of potential situations to examine the autonomous system behavior with regard to the wireless communication security. The conducted test results compare some exemplary scenarios, which involve 802.11p C2X communication in presence of
intentional interferences, which are realized in different configurations: SiL, HiL and in-field measurements.

Acknowledgement: This paper is a result of the SCOTT project (www.scott-project.eu) which has received funding from the Electronic Component Systems for European Leadership Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No 737422. This Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and Austria, Spain, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Netherlands, Belgium, Norway.

The document reflects only the authors' view and the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.

Improved RSS-Based DoA Estimation Accuracy in Low-Profile ESPAR Antenna Using SVM Approach

In this paper, we have shown how the overall performance of direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation using lowprofile electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna, which has been proposed for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, can significantly be improved when support vector machine (SVM) approach is applied. Because the SVM-based DoA estimation method used herein relies solely on received signal strength (RSS) values recorded at the antenna output port for different directional radiation patterns produced by the antenna steering circuit, the algorithm is well-suited for IoT nodes based on inexpensive radio transceivers. Measurement results indicate that, although the antenna can provide 8 unique main beam directions, SVM-based DoA of unknown incoming signals can successfully be estimated with good accuracy in a fast way using limited number of radiation patterns. Consequently, such an approach can be used in efficient location-based security methods in Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications.

Acknowledgement: This paper is a result of the SCOTT project (scott-project.eu) which has received funding from the Electronic Component Systems for European Leadership Joint Undertaking under grant agreement No 737422. This Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and Austria, Spain, Finland, Ireland, Sweden, Germany, Poland, Portugal, Netherlands, Belgium, Norway.

The document reflects only the authors' view and the Commission is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.

Improved RSS-Based DoA Estimation Accuracy in Low-Profile ESPAR Antenna Using SVM Approach

In this paper, we have shown how the overall performance of direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation using lowprofile electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antenna, which has been proposed for Internet of Things (IoT) applications, can significantly be improved when support vector machine (SVM) approach is applied. Because the SVM-based DoA estimation method used herein relies solely on received signal strength (RSS) values recorded at the antenna output port for different directional radiation patterns produced by the antenna steering circuit, the algorithm is wellsuited for IoT nodes based on inexpensive radio transceivers. Measurement results indicate that, although the antenna can provide 8 unique main beam directions, SVM-based DoA of unknown incoming signals can successfully be estimated with good accuracy in a fast way using limited number of radiation patterns. Consequently, such an approach can be used in efficient location-based security methods in Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications.

RSS-Based DoA Estimation for ESPAR Antennas Using Support Vector Machine

In this letter, it is shown how direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation for electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antennas, which are designed to be integrated within wireless sensor network nodes, can be improved by applying support vector classification approach to received signal strength (RSS) values recorded at an antenna's output port. The proposed method relies on ESPAR antenna's radiation patterns measured during the initial calibration phase of the DoA estimation process. These patterns are then used in the support vector machine (SVM) training process adapted to handle ESPAR antenna-based DoA estimation. Measurements using a fabricated ESPAR antenna indicate that the proposed SVM approach provides more accurate results than available RSS-based estimation algorithms relying on power pattern cross-correlation method.

A novel calibration method for RSS-based DoA estimation using ESPAR antennas

In this paper, we introduce a new calibration method that can successfully be used in direction of arrival (DoA) estimation using electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antennas and employing power-pattern cross-correlation (PPCC) algorithm, which relies on received signal strength (RSS) values recorded at the antenna output port. Instead of the commonly used two-step approach, during which ESPAR antenna calibration is performed and then the overall DoA estimation accuracy is measured, a single setup, which allows simultaneous calibration and verification, has been proposed. Measurement results indicate that the new calibration method reduces the total time required for calibration and verification in RSS-based DoA estimation using ESPAR antennas, which makes this approach easily applicable in practical wireless sensor network (WSN) deployments saving the time and associated costs required for system implementations, where the number of WSN nodes can easily reach hundreds.

Improved jamming resistance using electronically steerable parasitic antenna radiator

This paper presents an idea of using an Electronically Steerable Parasitic Antenna Radiator (ESPAR) for jamming suppression in IEEE 802.11b networks. Jamming (intentional interference) attacks are known to be effective and easy to perform, which may impose connectivity problems in applications concerning Internet of Things (IoT). In our paper, theoretical considerations are presented and the results of experiments performed in anechoic chamber are examined. During the test, IEEE 802.11b standard was used to provide communication between transmitter and receiver, and Software Defined Radio (SDR) device, which was used as a source of an intentional interference (jammer). The results showed that connectivity during jamming attack can be improved by using switched-beam antenna enhancing system’s bandwidth.

Wireless multimodal localization sensor for industrial applications

This paper presents the concept and design of a wireless multimodal localization sensor for hybrid localization systems combining vision-based, radio-based and inertial techniques in order to alleviate problems in harsh and complex industrial environments. It supports two radio technologies, 868 MHz UHF RFID and 2.4 GHz WSN, for positioning purposes and communications. The sensor includes LED light transmitters for vision-based localization and an inertial module. Special emphasis was put on power consumption and energy management in battery mode of the sensor.

Efficient algorithm for blinking LED detection dedicated to embedded systems equipped with high performance cameras

This paper presents the concept and implementation of an efficient algorithm for detection of blinking LED or similar signal sources. Algorithm is designed for embedded devices equipped with high performance cameras being a part of an indoor positioning embedded system. An algorithm to be implemented in such a system should be efficient in terms of computational power what is hard to be achieved when large amount of data from camera devices have to be processed. Together with increasing number of MPs (Megapixels) of camera sensor the possibility of accurate detection of LED signal source also increases, especially when the distance between the source and a camera is long. High number of FPS (Frames Per Second) is necessary if the time period for optical signal transmission have to be short. This condition is important for high detection and identification speed and also makes the whole system less sensitive to tracked object motion and changes in the scene. The cost of these advantages is larger amount of data to be processed by a computation unit what can cause a problem, when the system needs to work in close to real time conditions. In the paper the proposed efficient algorithm for blinking LED detection is described and experimental results are presented as the evaluation of algorithm performance.

RF Indoor Positioning System Supported by Wireless Computer Vision Sensors

In this paper the possibility of increase the accuracy of RF fingerprinting indoor tracking system by the use of additional information from simple vision system is examined. As the distances in signal space differs from ones in real environment the ambiguity in decision process of fingerprinting algorithm can occur when set of closest distances between tag and map points in signal space corresponds to big distances differences in environment. The additional information from vision system is utilize to resolve which of possible locations should be chosen as correct one. In paper localization system is described and experimental results are presented as the evaluation of system performance.