EMI attenuation in a DC-DC buck converter using GaN HEMT

A dc-dc buck converter using gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) is experimentally investigated at the discontinuous current mode (DCM) and at the triangular current mode (TCM) operation. The paper objective is to specify the power conversion efficiency and attenuation of common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) noise voltage, measured at the line impedance stabilization network (LISN) for compared control strategies. Zero voltage switching achieved for the TCM operation improves efficiency with reference to the DCM operation. However, significant attenuation of electromagnetic interference (EMI) spectra is obtained for TCM operation with capacitive snubber. Sizing of capacitor snubber dependent on parasitic inductances of commutation circuit and rapid switching of GaN HEMTs are illustrated.

Multi-transformer primary-side regulated flyback converter for supplying isolated IGBT and MOSFET drivers

This paper presents primary-side voltage regulated multi-transformer quasi-resonant flyback converter (MTFC) for supplying isolated power switch drivers. The proposed topology offers distinct advantages over frequently used flyback converter possessing one high frequency transformer with isolated multiple outputs. Particularly, when a large number of separate dc supply units is required, then MTFC enables improved regular distribution of magnetic coupling between the common primary and the multiple secondary transformers' windings providing high degree of galvanic and electromagnetic isolation between multiple outputs. Primary side voltage regulation is based on the average value of output voltages estimation using auxilliary RDC circuit mounted across the primary windings. Operation principles of MTFC are enhanced with analytical study of cross regulation of multiple output voltages at unbalanced load conditions, indicating reduced voltage deviation of multiple outputs by applying the primary-side average voltage regulation. Experimental results of prototype 2, 3, and 6-transformer quasi-resonant flyback converters confirmed their cross regulation quality and application potential for independent multiple output supplies.

Reducing common mode voltage and bearing currents in quasi - resonant DC - link inverter

In the paper, a concept of separation of an inverter-fed induction motor drive from its mains supply by two transistor switches inserted in the dc-link circuit is reexamined based on the proposed parallel quasi-resonant dc-link inverter (PQRDCLI). The objective of the paper is to show an advantage of the proposed topology in limiting high frequency common mode voltage and bearing currents. In the laboratory setup, an induction machine was equipped with hybrid ceramic bearings and an insulated clutch to measure the shaft-to-frame bearing voltage and the shaft-grounding current. Experimental tests of the PQRDCLI confirm significant reduction of common mode voltage and shaft-to-frame bearing voltage at dc-link zero voltage notches. By controlling the output voltage slopes, the shaft-grounding brush current and the ground leakage current are also reduced. The efficiency measurement and evaluation of the proposed topology, as compared with a two-level hard switched inverter, reveal comparable efficiency of around 95% and indicate loss distributions in both inverters

Resonant DC link inverters for AC motor drive systems – critical evaluation

In this survey paper, resonant and quasiresonant DC link inverters are reexamined for AC motor drive applications. Critical evaluation of representative topologies is based on simulation and waveform analysis to characterize current/voltage stress of components, control timing constraints and feasibility. A special concern over inverter common-mode voltage and voltage gradient du/dt limitation capacity is discussed for motor bearing and winding insulation safety. Experimental records of the laboratory developed parallel quasiresonant DC link inverter feeding induction motor confirm results of analysis. Comparative tables and simulation results demonstrate characteristic features of various schemes.

Quasi-resonant DC-link voltage inverter with enhanced zero-voltage switching control

A new topology modification of the parallel quasi-resonant circuit for a dc-link voltage inverter enables regulation of the zero voltage dc-link subperiods and the dc-link voltage gradient settings. The proposed circuit is based on four MOSFET switches with free-wheeling diodes for controlled quasi-resonant recharging between L-C tank in order to assure inverter zero voltage switching (ZVS) conditions. Design optimization of the prototype quasi-resonant inverter and timing sequences for common mode voltage reduction are described. Preliminary experimental results confirm precise controllability of the inverter ZVS operation.

Adaptive estimation of the transformer stray capacitances for DC–DC converter modelling

New low cost and accurate estimation method of transformer stray capacitances for wide band DC–DC converter modelling and design is proposed. The Wiener filter (WF) method is applied to estimate the transformer impedance – referred to the selected transformer winding configurations. Laboratory tests are used to adapt the filter, that is to find optimal impedance which minimises mean square error between measured, noise perturbed current and reconstructed current. Transformer transfer function peaks indicate internal LC resonances. Stray capacitances are extracted based on resonant frequencies determination. The method validation is carried out by simulation and experimental analysis, where estimated stray capacitances by WF are compared with measurements of an impedance analyser.

Multi-Transformer Flyback Converter for Supplying Isolated IGBT and MOSFET Drivers

A multi transformer flyback converter topology for supplying transistor drivers is presented. The topology presents some advantages over typical multi output single transformer, as reduction of effective leakage inductance, equal magnetic coupling between primary and secondary circuits and better isolation between outputs. Simulation study carried out in the LTSpice IV program and preliminary experimental results indicate high performance of the six isolated output symmetrical positive and negative dc power supply.

Analysis of electromagnetic disturbances in DC network of grid connected building-integrated photovoltaic system

M. Ruciński , P. Chrzan , P. Musznicki , J. Schanen, A. Labonne – 2015
This paper focuses on conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) emissions and propagation in the DC network of grid connected building integrated photovoltaic (PV) system. The investigated PV system, consists of ten solar panels, cabling and the grid-connected one phase inverter. The EMI simulation model of the real PV system has been developed with the aid of impedance analyzer measurements of solar panels and the DC network cable. Simulation study was carried out in the LTspice software environment. Next, the common and differential mode disturbances paths impedances (seen from inverter terminals), were calculated by two methods. First method was based on voltage and current spectra obtained during PV system operation. The second method resulted from impedance measurement at the disconnected inverter terminals. Comparison of simulation and experimental differential and common mode paths impedances indicates coherency level strongly dependent of the EMI frequency range.

Electromagnetic interference frequencies prediction model of flyback converter for snubber design

Snubber design for flyback converters usually requires experimental prototype measurements or simulation based on accurate and complex models. In this study simplified circuit modelling of a flyback converter has been described to dimension snubbers in early stage of design process. Simulation based prediction of the transistor and diode ringing frequencies has been validated by measurements in a prototype setup. In that way obtained simulation data enabled fast and precise snubbers dimensioning. Application example has illustrated effectiveness of the proposed methodology by line impedance stabilisation network (LISN) spectra evaluation of the experimental flyback converter resulting from snubbers dimensioning.

Voltage and frequency regulation of a standalone induction generator by reduced-rating power electronic compensators - comparative evaluation

In this paper are considered two fundamental topologies of power electronic compensators for voltage and frequency control of a standalone self-excited induction generator (IG) system. These are voltage and current source inverter based shunt compensators with energy storage. The aim of this study is to assess main features of both topologies in dynamic and steady-state IG operation. The whole system is modelled with the aid of the TCad circuit simulator. Comparative simulation tests are performed for active and reactive load power variations. From steady state switching waveforms, voltage and current source converter losses are evaluated. Concluding remarks focus on comparative specification of converter topologies for reduced rating shunt compensators in a standalone IG system applications.