Chiral pharmaceuticals (CPs) are widely used in different areas of human life, thus they are frequentlydetected in different ecosystems. However, before CPs reach the environment, wastewater is subjected todifferent treatment processes in order to remove them. Nevertheless, such processes may affect thechirality of CPs, thus it is very important to monitor CP levels during the wastewater treatment.This review addresses the present state of knowledge concerning the input, occurrence, fate and ef-fects of CPs in the environment. It focuses primarily on wastewater analysis, problems and challengesconnected with trace levels of CP enantiomers and highly complex matrices of samples. Analytical ap-proaches used in detection, identification and determination of enantiomers are presented. The appli-cation of the results of wastewater analysis to obtain information on the population's health andbehaviour has been included and discussed. Moreover, the prospects of the future trends in greenenantiomeric analysis are described.
Reference materials (RMs) play an important role in all elements of the quality assurance system of measurements. In this work, ``package'' 4 new CRMs (bottom sediment, herring tissue, cod tissue, cormorant tissue) were prepared and characterised to carry out the quality control in monitoring analysis of mercury and methylmercury in environmental samples. Materials - candidates were collected in Poland and south part of the Czech Republic. All materials were freeze-dried, milled, sieved, homogenised, sterilized and distributed in amber bottles. For the homogeneity and stability study of the samples of materials several statistical tests were applied. Materials - candidates for CRMs with certified mercury and methylmercury content meet the heterogeneity requirement and can be considered homogenous both between bottle and within bottle. Each material meets also the requirements for the stability condition of reference material with certified mercury content.
The problem of the presence of trace organic pollutants in food is of growing importance due to increasing awareness about their impact on newborns, infants and adults of reproductive age. Despite the fact that packaged food products offer many advantages, packaging can be a source of contamination for stored food. Thus, monitoring such pollution in food is of high importance. In this work, a novel methodology based on the solvent extraction of porous membrane-packed samples followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was applied for the determination of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) and their derivatives in packed vegetables. Several parameters of the extraction process were optimized, including the volume and type of extraction solvent as well as the sonication time. Due to advantages such as simplicity of use, short analysis time, and a reduction in the required amount solvent, the developed procedure can be considered green. In addition, the developed methodology was characterized by good validation parameters. Limit if quantitation (LOQ) was found to be in the range of 0.8 to 1.5 ng/g. The obtained recoveries varied from 78.3% to 111.2%. The repeatability of the extraction ranged between 0.6% and 5.8% (RSD). The proposed method was successfully applied to determine the presence of BADGE, BFDGE and their derivative compounds in the vegetable samples stored in different types of containers. The obtained data indicate that the majority of investigated samples were contaminated by chlorinated and hydroxyl derivatives of BADGE.
The complex nature of human breast milk (HBM) makes samples difficult to analyze, requiring several extraction techniques and analytical platforms to obtain high metabolome coverage. In this work, we combined liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques to prepare HBM samples to overcome the challenge of low- and high-abundance lipid species, enabling the semiquantitative analysis of total HBM lipids in one liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) run. A nonorganic fraction obtained during the LLE step was used to analyze small polar metabolites. This analytical approach allows extensive metabolome coverage, especially for low-abundance glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. The method was applied to monitor short-term metabolome changes in HBM composition within individual mothers and the results showed variable metabolite composition patterns. Simultaneous detection of high-abundance glycerolipids and low-abundance but not less significant phospholipids in one LC-MS run saves time, decreases cost, and enables comprehensive insight into the dynamics of HBM composition.
The aim of this study is to propose a methodology to assess electrochemical properties of complex mixtures of antioxidants, such as plant extracts, based on the results of simple and popular DPPH test. The first, most difficult step, involves determinations of standard reduction potentials (E0) for the series of purified compounds (here catechins). The next step is the calculation of stoichiometric values (n10) based on the results of DPPH test for the same compounds. Finally, a correlation equation is formulated, which is then employed to estimate “cumulative reduction potential” (Ec) for the mixture of interest (here cocoa) using DPPH test results.
This paper investigated the ability of sago bark (Metroxylon sagu) as a new potential biosorbent in removing Cr(VI) in batch system. The optimum adsorption capacity of sago bark (Metroxylon sagu) was 61.73 mg/g achieved at pH 3, agitation rate of 100 rpm, contact time 60 min, particle size ≤32 μm, and initial concentration of Cr(VI) 1,000 mg/L at room temperature (25°C). The adsorbent regeneration was carried out using 0.01 M HNO3 with regeneration efficiency of 78.35%. The adsorption data fitted better to Freundlich and Langmuir equilibrium isotherm models. The data confirmed that Cr(VI) sorption onto sago bark (Metroxylon sagu) has good agreement with pseudo-second-order model. The thermodynamic study indicated that Cr(VI) sorption onto sago bark (Metroxylon sagu) occurred as exothermic in nature (DH = –72.55 kJ/mol), which was required energy for adsorption process, and the disorderliness decreased as temperature increased (DS = –263.06 J/mol). Thus, it can be concluded that sago bark (Metroxylon sagu) can be utilized as a potential adsorbent in Cr(VI) removal.
Ionic liquids with their unique properties found so far numerous analytical applications. Among them ionic liquids immobilized on the surface or within the pores of a solid support were successfully utilized in extraction techniques dedicated to preconcentration of the analytes from food, environmental and biological samples. In this review we focus on comprehensive summarizing of available literature data on the examples of ionic liquid-based hybrid materials implementation in selected analytical extraction techniques, namely solid-phase extraction, solid-phase microextraction, hollow-fiber solid-phase microextraction, stir-bar sorptive extraction and biosensors. Additionally, this work is supported by concise discussion on strategies of ionic liquids immobilization in order to form hybrid materials (both chemical and physical) and the effects of confinement on structures along with ionic liquids physicochemical properties. This work allows for identifying the opportunities, challenges and shortcomings of this powerful and convenient, yet still not fully discovered analytical approach.
The aim of the following paper was to gather current scientific information about the analytical protocols dedicated to measuring the content level of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in various types of environmental samples. Moreover, the data about the basic validation parameters of applied procedures for SCCPs determination are listed. The main issue which is highlighted in the paper is the possibility of the application of green analytical chemistry (GAC) principals in the SCCPs measuring process to reduce the environmental impact of the applied methodology. Analytical methods dedicated to SCCPs determination contain a significant number of steps and require advanced analytical equipment during the quantitative and qualitative analysis. In addition, there is a substantial issue associated with the reliability of the obtained results, especially in the case of the quantification of individual SCCPs in the studied samples. Due to this fact, the paper attempts to discuss the various stages of the analytical procedure, in which appropriate changes in the formula or equipment solutions might be introduced to ensure a better quality of the analytical results, as well as to meet the requirements of the philosophy of green analytical chemistry. The most important case which concerns this subject is finding an optimal consensus between the economic and logistic aspects and the quality and “greenness” of the analytical procedure employed in SCCPs determination process.
Ionic liquids (ILs) with their unique properties found so far numerous analytical applications. Among them ILs both in their liquid form and immobilized on the surface or within the pores of a solid support were successfully utilized in microextraction techniques. The scope of this review will cover a comprehensive summarizing of available literature data on selected properties of ILs playing a key role in analytical purposes, methods of their implementation in microextraction techniques as liquid or solid/stationary extraction media and finally, the most recent examples of application of ILs-based microextraction techniques in preconcentration of analytes from food, environmental and biological samples. The work will be concluded with directions for further investigation in this field.
Tomato and its derived products have a very interesting nutritional value in addition to prominent antioxidant,anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In terms of tomatoes are generally quite safe to eat. However,overall consumption varies from individual to individual. Indeed, either beneficial or harmful effects of plantsor their derived products are closely related to quality, including the presence of biologically active compounds.On the other hand, the synthesis and accumulation of these bioactive molecules depends on many other fac-tors, such as environmental conditions. In this sense, this review briefly highlights the relationship betweenthe chemistry of tomato and its derived products and their beneficial or harmful effects on human health, suchas gastroesophageal reflux disease or heartburn, allergies, kidney and cardiovascular disorders, prostate cancer,irritable bowel syndrome, lycopenodermia, body aches, arthritis, and urinary problems.