The complex nature of human breast milk (HBM) makes samples difficult to analyze, requiring several extraction techniques and analytical platforms to obtain high metabolome coverage. In this work, we combined liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) techniques to prepare HBM samples to overcome the challenge of low- and high-abundance lipid species, enabling the semiquantitative analysis of total HBM lipids in one liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) run. A nonorganic fraction obtained during the LLE step was used to analyze small polar metabolites. This analytical approach allows extensive metabolome coverage, especially for low-abundance glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. The method was applied to monitor short-term metabolome changes in HBM composition within individual mothers and the results showed variable metabolite composition patterns. Simultaneous detection of high-abundance glycerolipids and low-abundance but not less significant phospholipids in one LC-MS run saves time, decreases cost, and enables comprehensive insight into the dynamics of HBM composition.
The aim of this study is to propose a methodology to assess electrochemical properties of complex mixtures of antioxidants, such as plant extracts, based on the results of simple and popular DPPH test. The first, most difficult step, involves determinations of standard reduction potentials (E0) for the series of purified compounds (here catechins). The next step is the calculation of stoichiometric values (n10) based on the results of DPPH test for the same compounds. Finally, a correlation equation is formulated, which is then employed to estimate “cumulative reduction potential” (Ec) for the mixture of interest (here cocoa) using DPPH test results.
This paper investigated the ability of sago bark (Metroxylon sagu) as a new potential biosorbent in removing Cr(VI) in batch system. The optimum adsorption capacity of sago bark (Metroxylon sagu) was 61.73 mg/g achieved at pH 3, agitation rate of 100 rpm, contact time 60 min, particle size ≤32 μm, and initial concentration of Cr(VI) 1,000 mg/L at room temperature (25°C). The adsorbent regeneration was carried out using 0.01 M HNO3 with regeneration efficiency of 78.35%. The adsorption data fitted better to Freundlich and Langmuir equilibrium isotherm models. The data confirmed that Cr(VI) sorption onto sago bark (Metroxylon sagu) has good agreement with pseudo-second-order model. The thermodynamic study indicated that Cr(VI) sorption onto sago bark (Metroxylon sagu) occurred as exothermic in nature (DH = –72.55 kJ/mol), which was required energy for adsorption process, and the disorderliness decreased as temperature increased (DS = –263.06 J/mol). Thus, it can be concluded that sago bark (Metroxylon sagu) can be utilized as a potential adsorbent in Cr(VI) removal.
Ionic liquids with their unique properties found so far numerous analytical applications. Among them ionic liquids immobilized on the surface or within the pores of a solid support were successfully utilized in extraction techniques dedicated to preconcentration of the analytes from food, environmental and biological samples. In this review we focus on comprehensive summarizing of available literature data on the examples of ionic liquid-based hybrid materials implementation in selected analytical extraction techniques, namely solid-phase extraction, solid-phase microextraction, hollow-fiber solid-phase microextraction, stir-bar sorptive extraction and biosensors. Additionally, this work is supported by concise discussion on strategies of ionic liquids immobilization in order to form hybrid materials (both chemical and physical) and the effects of confinement on structures along with ionic liquids physicochemical properties. This work allows for identifying the opportunities, challenges and shortcomings of this powerful and convenient, yet still not fully discovered analytical approach.
The aim of the following paper was to gather current scientific information about the analytical protocols dedicated to measuring the content level of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in various types of environmental samples. Moreover, the data about the basic validation parameters of applied procedures for SCCPs determination are listed. The main issue which is highlighted in the paper is the possibility of the application of green analytical chemistry (GAC) principals in the SCCPs measuring process to reduce the environmental impact of the applied methodology. Analytical methods dedicated to SCCPs determination contain a significant number of steps and require advanced analytical equipment during the quantitative and qualitative analysis. In addition, there is a substantial issue associated with the reliability of the obtained results, especially in the case of the quantification of individual SCCPs in the studied samples. Due to this fact, the paper attempts to discuss the various stages of the analytical procedure, in which appropriate changes in the formula or equipment solutions might be introduced to ensure a better quality of the analytical results, as well as to meet the requirements of the philosophy of green analytical chemistry. The most important case which concerns this subject is finding an optimal consensus between the economic and logistic aspects and the quality and “greenness” of the analytical procedure employed in SCCPs determination process.
Ionic liquids (ILs) with their unique properties found so far numerous analytical applications. Among them ILs both in their liquid form and immobilized on the surface or within the pores of a solid support were successfully utilized in microextraction techniques. The scope of this review will cover a comprehensive summarizing of available literature data on selected properties of ILs playing a key role in analytical purposes, methods of their implementation in microextraction techniques as liquid or solid/stationary extraction media and finally, the most recent examples of application of ILs-based microextraction techniques in preconcentration of analytes from food, environmental and biological samples. The work will be concluded with directions for further investigation in this field.
Tomato and its derived products have a very interesting nutritional value in addition to prominent antioxidant,anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In terms of tomatoes are generally quite safe to eat. However,overall consumption varies from individual to individual. Indeed, either beneficial or harmful effects of plantsor their derived products are closely related to quality, including the presence of biologically active compounds.On the other hand, the synthesis and accumulation of these bioactive molecules depends on many other fac-tors, such as environmental conditions. In this sense, this review briefly highlights the relationship betweenthe chemistry of tomato and its derived products and their beneficial or harmful effects on human health, suchas gastroesophageal reflux disease or heartburn, allergies, kidney and cardiovascular disorders, prostate cancer,irritable bowel syndrome, lycopenodermia, body aches, arthritis, and urinary problems.
Ethyl alcohol is the most popular legal drug, but its excessive consumption causes social problems. Despite many public campaigns against alcohol use, car accidents, instances of aggressive behaviour, sexual assaults and deterioration in labor productivity caused by inebriated people is still commonplace. Fast and easy diagnosis of alcohol consumption is required in order to introduce proper and effective therapy, and is crucial in forensic toxicology analysis. The easiest method to prove alcohol intake is determination of ethanol in body fluids or in breath. However, since ethanol is rapidly metabolized in the human organism, only recent consumption can be detected using this method. Because of that, the determination of alcohol biomarkers was introduced for monitoring alcohol consumption over a wider range of time. The markers described in this article are ethanol, its non-oxidative metabolites (ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, phosphatidylethanol, ethyl phosphate, fatty acid ethyl esters) and oxidative metabolites (acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde adducts). The objective of this study is to review published studies focusing on the sample preparation methods and chromatographic or biochemical techniques for the determination of alcohol biomarkers in whole blood, plasma, serum and urine. Authors also described issues concerning the detection window of these biomarkers, and possibilities and limitations of their use in routine analytical toxicology for monitoring alcohol consumption or sobriety during alcohol therapy.
Pharmaceuticals and analogs of bisphenol A (BPA) are increasingly threatening environmental pollutants. In this study, mixtures of selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac sodium salt, chloramphenicol, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, fluoxetine hydrochloride, estrone, ketoprofen, progesterone, gemfibrozil and androstenedione) were prepared with BPA and its two analogs (namely, bisphenols F and S) at such ratios to reflect environmentally detectable levels. Then, the mixture solutions were studied with a XenoScreen YES/YAS assay to determine the variations in the initial hormonal response of each pharmaceutical compound due to the presence of a bisphenol analog. The results obtained were modeled with the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) approaches, the trueness of which was studied with model deviation ratios (MDR). The estrogenic agonistic activity of the drugs studied was most strongly affected by the presence of BPA in solution (twenty-one cases of synergy observed for CA models versus twelve cases of antagonism in the case of IA predictions). BPS shows a strong agonistic estrogenic impact on most of the drugs studied at medium and high concentration levels; androgenic agonistic activity was also impaired with elevated concentrations of BPS.
Technika mikroekstrakcji do pojedynczej kropli stanowi sztandarowy przykład rozwiązania technicznego spełniającego wymogi stawiane przez ideę zielonej chemii analitycznej.