Open Science Glossary | Gdańsk University of Technology

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Open Science Glossary

An academic social network for researchers of all disciplines. The website is used, inter alia, to exchange documents, observe research in a given field and monitor its impact. Link to the website:
Websites functioning based on web applications (e.g. ResearchGate,, X, etc.). Their main goal is to build social networks among scientists, develop interactive communication in the scientific community, and share research data and information on research being conducted, grants and initiated projects.

A non-traditional approach to bibliometrics proposed as an alternative or supplement to more traditional citation impact indicators such as the Impact Factor and H-Index.

The term altmetrics was proposed in 2010 by Jason Priem as an alternative to metrics that measure the use and impact of individual scientific articles through citation metrics only. Altmetrics are metrics and qualitative data which complement traditional metrics and are not just a citation count.

Altmetrics calculate scientific impact based on various online research results, such as social networks and online news outlets. They use public APIs on various platforms to collect data using open scripts and algorithms. Using the Internet, altmetrics can tell a lot about how often journal articles and other scientific outputs, such as datasets, are discussed and used around the world. For this reason, altmetrics are used to analyse websites for researchers, institutional repositories, journal and other websites. While these are often metrics for articles, they can also be applied to journals, books, datasets, presentations, videos, repositories, webpages, etc.

A classification of altmetrics was proposed by ImpactStory in September 2012:

  • viewed - HTML views and PDF downloads
  • discussed - discussions and comments on articles as a record of potential impact. The source of data for this metric are: science blogs, Wikipedia, Twitter, Facebook and other social media
  • saved - how many times the page was saved or bookmarked. It is understood that users typically bookmark pages that are highly relevant to their work, i.e. may serve as an additional impact indicator for specific research. Such information is provided by specialised social networks such as CiteULike and Mendeley
  • cited - besides the traditional metrics based on citations in scientific literature, such as those obtained from Google Scholar, CrossRef and Scopus, altmetrics also track citations in secondary knowledge sources. For example, ImpactStory counts the number of times a paper has been referenced by Wikipedia
  • recommended - rankings and recommendations, e.g. used by F1000Prime

Pros of altmetrics:

  • speed of data collection
  • they cover more impact factors than traditional bibliometrics, and can therefore capture more diverse interactions
  • they can be used for different types of sources, not only articles in journals and books

Cons of altmetrics:

  • contextuality of the information being collected
  • they create opportunities to artificially inflate altmetrics with own research
Scientific and Industry-Specific Polish Electronic Journals available online. Enables access to complete texts, summaries or tables of contents. The information includes, but is not limited to: journal title, ISSN, publisher, frequency of publication, discipline classification, link to instructions for authors, Impact Factor, Index Copernicus, scoring of the Ministry of Education and Science. The database is being developed by Aneta Drabek and Arkadiusz Pulikowski.

A publishing financing solution that reverses the traditional model in which the reader pays for access. When using the APC option, the author or the institution with which they are affiliated as a researcher pays for the possibility of publishing the article in a journal. This publication fee is charged by some open access journals (including in the hybrid OA and Gold OA models). Paying the fee does not always mean that the author retains copyright to the work or that it will be made available under an open licence. Critics of APC point out that the fee may reduce the importance of the quality of a publication in relation to the financial capacity of the author. In Poland, there are programmes financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education which support the financing of publications in highly scored journals, i.e. Elsevier or Springer.

APC fees are an eligible cost in some projects - it is worth securing publishing costs in the budget, as Open Access is mandatory, for example, for those running projects from the National Science Centre.


(from Greek biblíon – book and lógos – word, science) the humanistic discipline consisting in the study of books both as physical objects and as means of conveying human thought. From the earliest times, this discipline has studied books and the issues associated with their creation, circulation and reception (including the processes and institutions involved). It covers specific disciplines such as book history, bibliography, editing, bookselling, librarianship and reading habits. It developed its own methods: bibliographical, typographical and provenancial. Bibliological topics were discussed as part of philological and historical disciplines.

The term bibliology, meaning a scientific reflection on the book as such, became popular at the turn of the 19th century as the crowning achievement of a long journey that book researchers, especially bibliographers and librarians, went through. The areas of interest and nature of bibliology are most often derived from the theory and practice of bibliography and research on the history of the book. Philosophy, theology and the studies of literature, language and art have also played a great role in the development of this discipline. Dictionnaire raisonné de bibliologie... (1802) by É. G. Peignot was instrumental in bibliology becoming a separate discipline. In the second half of the twentieth century, bibliology expanded its area of interest to cover technical and social aspects of the book, and embraced the conceptual apparatus and methods employed in other disciplines (such as psychology, sociology, economics, semiotics and information technology).

In Poland, the main centres of bibliological research are the National Library, research libraries and university library institutions. There are also journals published on the subject, e.g. Studia o książce, and the annual Polska Bibliografia Bibliologiczna.


A comprehensive licence agreement under which a library or library consortium buys electronic access to all or selected journals of a publisher in order to reduce access fees and costs associated with journals already subscribed to by the institution.

The term Big Deal was first used in 2001 by Ken Frazier to refer to a comprehensive licence agreement between a library and large publishers under which a publisher provides access to a selection of journals sold as one product for a single price.

A Big Deal agreement covers a large selection of electronic journals, allowing libraries to expand access and create collections without a significant increase in costs. In addition, publishers often offer online access to previously unsubscribed journals at low or no extra cost, provided that no existing subscriptions are cancelled. Libraries typically cancel printed subscriptions and individual electronic subscriptions to access full packages. A Big Deal often relies on syndicated agreements, but it can also be an indirect agreement between an institution and the publisher.

Pros of the Big Deal model:

  • being able to control the institution’s budget for the purchase of collections
  • extended access to journals
  • easy use and management of access to the collection

Cons of the Big Deal model:

  • reduced role of the librarian in the process of compiling a collection
  • high costs
  • often only a small percentage of the collection is used; many titles are never used
  • uncertainty over long-term access rights; ending a Big Deal agreement could involve a greater loss of content
  • publishers may impose restrictions on changes to the collection at will

Free access to paid scientific articles. “Black” refers to the various methods through which scientific articles or other content are shared illegally. In reference to the 2008 manifesto by Aaron Swarz, illegal access to scientific publications is also referred to as Guerrilla OA.

Black OA often involves ignoring copyrights and not paying the financial costs of processing an article. Black OA users use free access to digital versions of articles often without the authors’ knowledge and consent. The barriers created by publishers (subscriptions and fees) have led some users to seek alternative ways of accessing scientific content. Black OA emerged as a result of the growing demand for quick, easy and free access to scientific materials.

It can take various forms, such as:

  • requesting the author of the article to provide a copy via the link to an institutional repository
  • sharing logins for subscribed content with an unauthorised person
  • sharing requests on Twitter (#icanhazpdf)
  • pirated content sites, such as Sci-Hub, LibGen and r / scholar

Black OA is a major threat to traditional publishing models (Bohannon, 2016). Most of the approximately 50% of the most recently published research articles are available after one year as illegal copies as part of Black OA (Björk, 2017). Academic social media (ResearchGate and and pirated content websites (Sci-Hub, LibGen and r / scholar) play a key role in popularising Black OA.

A fee charged by a publisher to cover the cost of publishing a book in open access.

Scientific publications shared for public circulation, e.g. on the publisher’s website, without specifying the rules for further use under a licence.

This term was coined relatively recently (around 2015) in response to the need to include a new category of open access that did not fit the existing definitions.

Publications created as part of Bronze Open Access are classified as:

  • publications released by publishers as open access after an initial embargo
  • publications with content open for editing (including unreviewed)
  • promotional publications shared on a one-time basis
  • publications released by publishers as Gold OA, but not belonging to DOAJ

Articles published by publishers are often unavailable online or change their status from paid to free.

The lack of a clear publishing policy for scientific journals or legal turmoil may lead to more and more publications being shared as Brown OA. This publication model raises a number of doubts and questions, which are also addressed in scientific publications.

A form for the assignment of copyrights. In this model, the author transfers their copyright to a specific work to the publisher.
A non-profit organisation that enables creative work to be shared and used digitally through free legal tools. It offers a package of copyright licences to ensure a simple, standardised way of publishing knowledge on terms chosen by the author. Licences are not an alternative to copyright, but operate in parallel to copyright.
An expressive scientific or artistic creation based on an original work. A derivative work is processed. Some examples include translation, alteration or adaptation.

Diamond Open Access is a model of scholarly publishing that does not charge author fees (APC - Article Processing Charges). Also known as sponsored or platinum OA. Since journals do not charge either readers or authors directly, such publishers often require funding from external sources such as the sale of advertisements, academic institutions, learned societies, philanthropists or government grants.

In effect, this is a "publisher-pays" model and is usually offered by university presses where the costs of publication are subsumed within existing budgets and regarded as part of the mission of a university.

A digital identifier of an electronic document that is assigned permanently. The creator of the DOI system and trademark owner is the International DOI Foundation, which itself defines DOI as a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related current data concerning it.
A website hosting full-text scientific books, available as Open Access. The website managed by the OAPEN Foundation offers a search engine that allows users to browse the collection by title, topic and publisher. Each record contains basic information about a given item and a link to the full text. The website is constantly updated with new titles and covers all scientific disciplines, including art, biology, chemistry, geography and economics.
An Open Access website that indexes the largest collection of reviewed journals available to users under open licences. Managed by Lund University, the database is constantly updated and collects information on journal titles published around the world. Its area of interest covers all scientific disciplines. Each record shall contain basic information on the journal concerned: where and in which language it is issued, under which licences and whether the publisher charges a publication fee.
They are an archive of publications by representatives of a specific discipline (e.g. Arxiv, CogPrints).
Term related to the process of reviewing a scientific article. It means that the author(s) of the publication and the reviewers do not reveal their identities. In a double-blind peer review, both the reviewers’ and authors’ identities are concealed from each other throughout the review process.
A general metadata standard. The Dublin Core format is being popularised by the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative. The goal of this organisation is to create a standard for efficient searching of electronic resources. Version 1.1 of the DC description standard is used by digital libraries of the dLibra system.

A temporary restriction imposed by a publisher or content provider on public access to the content of a scientific publication. This restriction does not apply to institutional or individual readers who have paid for access to the document subject to the embargo. The duration of the embargo depends on the decision of the publisher or content provider, and usually ranges from 6 to 24 or even 48 months.

There are at least two types of embargo: concerning the access to the content of a document that is to appear in OA over time, and concerning the self-archiving of a document by its author. The former is related to the concept of a moving wall, while the latter involves giving the author permission to publish an article on their own, outside the publisher’s domain, e.g. in an institutional repository.

It may be the case that publishers comprehensively presenting publishing policies for a larger number of titles facilitate the search for potential authors and librarians who support them by creating tools for finding information on the embargo duration for each journal. An example of such a tool is Elsevier’s Journal Embargo Finder.

A virtual environment for storing, sharing and using data across disciplines, countries or technologies. It is an open cooperation platform for European research and science teams. Its main tasks are to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of scientific activities by enabling scientists to access research results, and to facilitate the exchange and analysis of data in a secure environment.
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An agreement under which the licensee has the exclusive right to use the work in a specific field of use, and the licensor may not grant a licence to anyone else to use the work for the period specified in the agreement. The agreement grants the rights to publish in the specified fields of use only to the institution with which the agreement is signed. In order to retain the option to make a publication available in open access, the institution being licenced to (with which the agreement is signed) must be obligated to permit it.
A legal doctrine that permits limited use of copyrighted material without having to first acquire permission from the copyright holder.

One of the open access publishing models whereby journal publishers make all articles and related content available free of charge on the journal’s website immediately after publication.

There are two variants:

  1. Full Gold OA or Pure Gold OA - there are no subscription fees in this model, and publishers earn by charging authors or institutions. These fees are known as Article Processing Charges (APCs).
  2. Hybrid Gold OA - in this variant, authors publish in traditional subscription-based journals, but can choose gold access for their publications by paying the APC. Once the article is published, it is open to all readers. In hybrid journals, only some of the articles can be accessed in this way. Other articles which are not available through Gold OA cannot be viewed by readers who are not subscribed to these journals.

Advantages of publishing in the gold model:

  • free access immediately when first published - an article is available to all users as soon as it is published, which means that it can be used immediately. This significantly improves access to the most recent research and positively affects further research.
  • broad exploitation right - typically, articles from publisher websites are licenced under more liberal terms than standard copyright. This means that articles can be accessed openly and used.
  • more citations - consistent and instant availability of online publications ensures high visibility, contributing to wider availability of content and more citations.
This type of access is still synonymous with “all rights reserved”, but with paid access removed. Until the user obtains additional licences from the rights holder (the author or another entity, e.g. a publisher), they may use the work in accordance with the provisions on fair use. Fair use is guaranteed by law. This means that a user who wishes to use a work under this rule does not need to seek permission from the copyright holder. Fair use can be private or public. Under private use, reproduction of works for private purposes by natural persons and persons who have family or social ties with them is permitted. On the other hand, the fair public use allows the work to be made available to an unlimited number of persons, if done in accordance with the law and meets all requirements. As part of public use, citation, reprinting, sharing of works by libraries, archives and schools, and reproduction of works for educational and scientific purposes are possible.

A model of distributing scientific publications and other unpublished effects of scientific activity (e.g. conference posters, multimedia presentations), under which the author independently deposits and makes their work available on the Internet (self-archiving).

When an author publishes their text in a journal with a traditional subscription-based publishing model, usually when entering into a contract with the publisher, the author waives some or all of their copyrights to the article. However, this does not mean that the author loses the right to disseminate the work on their own. Most publications have an OA policy under which authors can share their publication with others on specific terms.

One practice commonly used by publishers is a time embargo during which an article will only be available on the publisher’s website. Another frequent practice is to allow the self-archiving of only certain versions of the article. For example, the publisher may agree to make available a preprint (i.e. a pre-review article) or postprint version (i.e. the final, reviewed version of the article, but without the editorial cover of the journal), while prohibiting the distribution of the publisher version, i.e. the version that can be found in the journal. Publishers often also determine the licence under which publications are made available.

Keep in mind that every journal adopts its own OA rules, so before publishing anything on the Internet, the author should make sure that they have the right to do so. The first place to visit is the Sherpa/RoMEO database, which gathers information on the OA policies of publishers. The database can be browsed by publisher name, journal title or ISSN. Information on the form and manner in which the author can disseminate their article should also be available on the journal’s website or can be obtained by contacting the editorial team.

After verifying the possibility of self-archiving, it is time to decide where to place your work. Depositing it in an open repository is the best solution. Repositories provide adequate infrastructure for long-term storage and sharing of files. Moreover, many resources are indexed in various bibliographic and abstract databases, and scientific search engines, especially in Google Scholar. Indexation significantly improves online visibility, which in consequence may also have a positive impact on the number of citations.

The repository should be selected based on the scientific discipline and the institution with which it is affiliated. There are repositories which collect publications from specific disciplines, such as arXiv or ChemRxiv. Another type of repositories are institutional repositories, intended for the academic staff of a given university. The BRIDGE of Knowledge is one such example. There are also “orphan repositories”, providing access to works from various disciplines and institutions, such as the Open Science Centre Repository. Also remember that depositing an article in one repository does not restrict the author from placing the same text in other repositories. OpenDOAR (Directory of Open Access Repositories) can help you choose a repository. One should also keep in mind that social networks for researchers, e.g. and ResearchGate, are not repositories. This is important primarily in the context of the OA policies of publishers, who often emphasise that their consent to share an article applies to repositories, but not websites, such as ResearchGate.


Also known as the Hirsch number or the h-index. It is a bibliometric index that measures the total impact of a given author on their discipline based on the distribution of citations. The formula takes into account the number of articles published so far by the researcher and how many times each publication was cited, and uses this data to determine the citation threshold. The h-index was introduced by the physics professor Jorge E. Hirsch in 2005. A scientist has an index of h if h from among their publications have at least h citations each, and each of the remaining publications has no more than h citations.

The h-index, therefore, reflects both the number of publications and the average number of citations of each publication. The index was designed to better reflect the value of scientific achievements than the mere number of publications or the total number of citations of all publications of a scientist. It favours researchers who publish fewer but high-quality papers and those whose publications are constantly and frequently cited, as their h-index increases over time. The Hirsch index has been designed for a preliminary comparison of the achievements of researchers working in a given field. Since the average number of publications, co-authors and citations of a single article depend on the discipline, it is not advisable to compare the Hirsch index for researchers from two different disciplines.

A subscription journal with a paid Open Access option where articles can be published in open access, subject to paying an Article Processing Charge (APC) to the publisher.
Index Copernicus International Journals Master List. It is an international indexing database of scientific journals, in which the submitted periodicals have been annually evaluated for nearly 20 years. A prerequisite for indexation is a positive transition to a multidimensional parametric assessment currently based on more than 100 criteria. The evaluation process is free of charge, and all journals registered in the ICI World of Journals database can be submitted. Periodicals meeting the formal criteria and the initial indexation conditions are assigned an ICV (Index Copernicus Value), which is valid for 1 year and reflects the level of the journal’s development and its impact on the world of science. The ICI Journals Master List is one of the few databases that performs a detailed assessment every year and is the only Polish brand in global science.
An open bibliometric tool based on alternative metrics (altmetrics) or metrics that enable online measurement of the impact of research. Alternative metrics complement traditional bibliometric metrics (e.g. Impact Factor or Hirsch index).

An academic field concerned with all of theoretical and practical aspects of information-related activities. Being a young field of science, it has not crystallised a uniform research area and lacks its own methodology, instead using strict methods of analysis, statistical methods and the methodology of the social sciences. Also, its nomenclature has changed a number of times, from Bibliography through Documentation (scientific / scientific-technical, etc.) to Scientific Information or Information Management, etc. Maria Dembowska distinguishes five basic approaches:

  1. cybernetic (processes related to the acquisition and transfer of data)
  2. logological (science and information generated by it)
  3. psychological (people and their information-related behaviour)
  4. praxeological (optimisation of information-related activities)
  5. systemic (systems theory)

In turn, according to Sabina Cisek, the subject of information science research is broadly understood information-related activity, knowledge, information and meaning, information phenomena and processes in science, information retrieval, information users, technical and organisational aspects, and information as such.

Digital archives collecting and disseminating the intellectual achievements of a scientific community (of a university or research institute, e.g. BRIDGE of Knowledge Repository, DSpace@MIT). Content in this archive is scientific, cumulative and available in open access. An institutional repository also includes a number of services that a university/institution offers to members of its community, e.g. managing and sharing digital documents generated by the institution and its members, along with long-term data security.

A ranking of journals published annually by Clarivate Analytics. It includes a bibliometric assessment of the citation rate of scientific journals based on all data that allows the key factors influencing the value of a journal to be identified. Structured data is selected by an international team of experts who evaluate collections of journals, books and conference materials from the Web of Science Core Collection database to ensure an accurate assessment of a journal’s impact.

Originally, the JCR was published as part of the Science Citation Index created by the Institute for Scientific Information in Philadelphia (the Philadelphia list). Currently, the JCR is available at all Polish universities and research institutes that have joined the Virtual Science Library programme.

It involves abolishing fees for access to content, while transferring to users some of the rights of the authors. With Libre Open Access, the user has the right to go beyond fair use. For this to be possible, the author needs to express their consent to specific activities in an appropriate manner, e.g. by using open licences. In practice, open licencing means allowing unrestricted, free and non-exclusive use of works with the possibility of text processing (creating derivative works). However, this does not mean that the author completely waives their rights. The basic right of authors is the right of attribution. The user is obliged to provide information about the author, producer, publisher, source, object of the licence and its provisions. This limitation is known as the authorship attribution clause. The second possible, but not always used, limitation of the user’s freedoms is the obligation to share or process the work under a pre-agreed licence (the same as the original), which is referred to as “copyleft clause” or “share-alike clause”. Open licencing already offers ready-to-use and standardised models. The most popular examples of a typical open licence are two out of the six Creative Commons licences: CC BY and BY-SA.
A natural person, legal person or an organisational unit which is not a legal person, wishing to use the copyright to a given work to a certain extent and in specific fields of use.
The creator of a work or their legal successor as well as originally recognised copyright holders (other than the author, these include the publisher).

(science of science) in a narrow sense, it means the epistemology of science; in a broader sense, it refers to a group of disciplines that includes the theory, history, methodology and taxonomy of science. Identified as a separate discipline in the 1930s. Practical logological research has been developing since the 1960s, leading to new fields of logology: sociology and theory of science organisation, theory and organisation of scientific information, and economics of science and science policy.

A distinction is often made between theoretical (pure) and practical (applied) sciences. Theoretical logology includes epistemology, philosophy / theory of science, logic, methodology, history, psychology, and sociology. Applied logology, on the other hand, includes praxeology, knowledge of organisation and management, science of information and scientific documentation, economics and science policy.

Logology is concerned with rational influence on the development of the sciences. Its task is to develop recommendations for people at different institutions and agencies who are practically involved in scientific matters and science policy on a global, international, national, regional and institutional scale.

The concepts of practical logology, economics of science and science policy were included in the 1970s in the guidelines of UNESCO and the International Council of Scientific Unions on research coordination and financing. Based on this, government-level decision-making bodies dealing with science policy and seeking to base their activities on scientific principles and the analysis of facts have started to operate in a number of countries. In Poland, practical logology is mainly the responsibility of the Committee for Scientific Research, the Committee for Science at the Presidium of the Polish Academy of Sciences, the Committee for Forecasts Poland 2000 Plus of the Polish Academy of Sciences, the Institute of History of Science of the Polish Academy of Sciences, the Committee for the History of Science and Technology at Faculty I of the Polish Academy of Sciences, the Department of the Theory of Science and Philosophy of Science, and the Institute of Philosophy and Sociology of the Polish Academy of Sciences.

A project developed at Stanford University for libraries, aimed at ensuring reliable and secure protection of digital resources. It operates based on open-source technologies.

Massive Online Open Courses. A form of online learning that assumes participation by an unlimited number of people simultaneously via the Internet. Such courses are the most varied and advanced form of using Open Educational Resources.

“Massive” means that the courses are available to any number of participants, whether 10 or 10,000. “Open” means free of charge or limits (subtitles in various languages are also available). “Online” means that this type of courses can take place remotely and are available at any time, regardless of whether the course’s author is available. These courses use their own and specific teaching methods. They assume the use of video recordings and interactive games, in addition to working with texts, group work and taking tests to demonstrate mastery of specific teaching content.

MOOCs are commonly used in academic teaching. There are websites offering this form of teaching at universities. The most well-known course of this type is the Open Course Ware, launched in 2001 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, currently offering 2,400 courses for over 300 million users from around the world.

Rights that are inalienable and unlimited in time, held only by the creator and serving to protect the association between the creator and their work.
Imposing a temporary technological and financial embargo on digital resources to the effect that scientific publications are made available to the public after a specified period. In practice, it typically involves blocking access to the most recent issues of journals and gradually releasing older ones.
An agreement under which the licensee does not have the exclusive right to use a work in a specific field of use. This licence permits independent use of a work by multiple individuals or institutions. Granting a non-exclusive licence to the publisher guarantees the creator the continued right to publish, e.g. on the Internet, and licence to other entities or institutions. These types of licences are, among others, Creative Commons licences.
Many international publishers provide a new type of service usually called Online First or Early View Articles. The purpose of this function is to accelerate access to an article that has already been approved for publication in a given journal. The time between writing an article and its publication is significantly reduced, allowing content to reach the scientific community faster. According to publishers’ websites, Online First articles are published immediately after the publisher receives the article submitted by the author, following all final comments from reviewers. Therefore, the content of an Online First / Early View publication does not differ from the final version of the article, and no changes to the text are possible, except through errata. In addition, when posted on the Internet, an Online First article is assigned a unique and unchanging DOI and the date of first publication. According to publishers, the only difference between an Online First article and Version of Record is the method of citation. Online First Articles are cited using the DOI. According to Springer, in the case of printed journals, following the publication of Online First articles, they are then paginated, and title pages, a table of contents and a cover are added.
Consortium to support the implementation of Open Access in Europe.

The most commonly used definition of OER is the one from the UNESCO Paris Declaration of 2012, according to which open educational resources are: “teaching, learning and research materials in any medium, digital or otherwise, that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open licence that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions. Open licensing is built within the existing framework of intellectual property rights as defined by relevant international conventions and respects the authorship of the work”.

Open Educational Resources can take the form of written and spoken texts, photos, recordings, radio and television broadcasts, animations and other videos, tests, quizzes, games or source codes. They can be found in an electronic form, but this is not a pre-requisite.

The concept of Open Educational Resources was developed by David Wiley, who proposed that the OER should follow the 5R rule:

  1. Reuse - the right to reuse a resource in any way
  2. Revise - the right to adapt, adjust or modify, e.g. translate a resource content into another language
  3. Remix - the right to combine the original or modified content with other OER to create something new (e.g. mashup)
  4. Redistribute - the right to share copies of the original content, its revisions or remixes with others (e.g. publish a copy of the content online to be freely downloaded by others)
  5. Retain - the right to make, own and share copies of the content online

A platform for managing the publishing process and publishing online journals. The OJS is used to send texts to the editors and track them, review texts and manage all stages of the preparation for publication: linguistic correction and desktop publishing, tracking various forms of activity in the system, publishing texts, informing readers and authors about publications and all matters concerning the journal, archiving texts with extensive search options based on various criteria, and reading online texts.

Multiple language versions can be installed. The system interface is recognisable by the international scientific community.

One of the main advantages of the OJS platform is that the content of a journal edited on it is automatically indexed by Google Scholar. It also includes a tool to facilitate the transmission of metadata editing to scientific databases.

They are created for researchers who want to make their achievements available in open access and whose home universities do not keep an institutional repository (e.g. CeON, Zenodo).
A technological and financial barrier preventing universal access to content in digital scientific publishing.
An initiative for open-access publishing launched in September 2018. Plan S is supported by cOAlition S, an international consortium of research funders. Plan S requires that, from 2021 onwards, scientific publications resulting from publicly funded research be published in Open Access journals or platforms.
A website of the Ministry of Education and Science that collects information on Polish and foreign scientific journals, publications of Polish scientists and research units. It is part of POL-on, the Integrated System of Information on Science and Higher Education.
The final version of a publication following reviews and editing, but before publication. It differs from a version which has already been published in a journal in that it does not have a graphic layout specific to a given journal (publisher identification and formatting). It is a reviewed version of a scientific publication prepared for publishing.
The practice of certain publishers using publishing pressure and the open access model for quick financial gain for the publisher. The publication fee is not provided on the journal’s website. Authors receive information about the fees to their mailbox, along with incentives to publish in a given journal. Predatory journals do not have a reliable review process or publishing ethics standards. As a result, the publication process is very quick. The editors are not clearly stated, and the address of the editorial office or the publisher is concealed. The titles of such journals resemble those of prestigious journals, give the impression of being international publications or use rare combinations of scientific disciplines. On his blog, Jeffrey Beall published the criteria for identifying predatory publishers and a special list (Beall’s list), which he removed along with the blog in January 2017.
A preliminary version of a publication before being reviewed and edited.

Transferable and time-limited rights to use and dispose of a work in all fields of use and receive the resulting remuneration.

In connection with the proprietary copyrights, the creator holds a civil subjective right of absolute nature. These rights can be transferred to another entity. Typically, this is done under a proprietary copyrights transfer or licencing agreement. Other types of agreements are also allowed, such as donation and sale agreements. These rights are hereditary, and, therefore, may be transferred to another entity by a will or by statutory inheritance. These rights expire 70 years after the author’s death (or at a fixed date that results from certain circumstances, such as disappearance or an uncertain date of death), as a result of which the work enters the public domain. In the case of collective works, this time runs from the final date. This protection period runs from the last day of the calendar year in which the author died. If a proprietary copyright is violated, the injured party, i.e. the creator or the holder of the proprietary right, may demand damages, cessation of the infringement and elimination of its consequences.

An article version published on the publisher’s website, with the graphic design specific for a given journal.
A publicly available international database of basic information (responsible entity, date of establishment) on institutional repositories promoting Open Access.
An electronic system in which articles, datasets and other objects in digital form are collected, archived and shared. The content contained in the repository is identified with metadata, which describes the content in such a way that it can be indexed and searched. There are different types of repositories: institutional repositories that collect content (both unpublished and published) generated by the employees of one institution, and discipline-specific repositories that collect content from a specific field, regardless of where the content was originated.
An academic social network for scientists and researchers of all disciplines. ResearchGate enables the self-archiving of texts. The website is also used by most scientists and researchers as a contact mailbox for establishing professional relations, for following what competitors are doing, and for posting and sharing their publications (in accordance with the applicable law).

The field of logology that uses mathematical methods for the quantitative analysis of the effects of scientific activity and research into the development of science as an information process. In other words, scientometrics analyses, through quantitative methods, inputs, human resources and scientific background as well as research processes and research results in the form of scientific publications or patents. In the field of scientific efficiency, scientometrics widely uses the achievements and methods developed by bibliometrics, which examines the quantitative status and trends of scientific literature using statistical methods.

The term “scientometrics” was used for the first time by Vasily Nalimov and Z. M. Multschenko in 1969. At the core of scientometrics are theoretical assumptions in the form of three laws: Lotka’s law of scientific productivity, Bradford’s law of scattering, and Garfield’s law of concentration. Eugene Garfield, the co-founder of the Science Citation Index and the Impact Factor, made seminal contributions to the development and promotion of the use of scientometrics.

Scientometrics describes the development of science through scientometric indexes. There are three main types of indicators which determine:

  • the size and characteristics of scientific output (scientific output indicators)
  • the scope and characteristics of scientific impact on the environment (scientific impact indicators)
  • the expenditure on science, human resources and material research facilities (scientific input indicators)

The correlation between these indicators can tell a lot about how the expenditures incurred for the development of science translate into the results of research and their impact on global science.

There are many critical opinions about the widespread use of scientometrics in science evaluation. The main concerns are that science is presented in an overly simplified manner by being boiled down to pure statistics, the potential for manipulation of bibliographic indicators, and too much emphasis on scientific articles at the expense of monographs.


The process of placing scientific and research content independently in open access repositories in the form of e-prints. It is one a way of publishing according to the Green Open Access concept. The process of publishing written content is supported by the author introducing metadata for the description of the object and the author’s sharing consent. It is an element of auto-archiving, which broadly refers to digital written and other content of a scientific, educational and supporting nature.

The author can self-archive if they are in possession of the required property rights to the work. These rights may be lost only by transferring proprietary copyrights to an article or granting an exclusive licence. The publisher may also impose certain restrictions, e.g. permitting archiving only in an institutional repository or imposing a temporary embargo on an article. There are special databases that provide information on self-archiving conditions, such as SHERPA/RoMEO.

An international database on publishers’ policies. The journals included in the database specify in detail the rights of authors and readers to reuse preprint and postprint documents, and publishing versions (with the journal/publisher’s graphic design). The database helps authors understand complex legal issues, while allowing the publisher to present itself in a prestigious group of open scientific journals.
It refers to the review process of an article. This means that the author(s) of the publication do(es) not know the identity of the reviewers. However, the reviewers know both the identity and affiliation of the author(s) of a given article. The single-blind peer review process is a traditional model for reviewing scientific and research articles.
Acronym for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. It refers to all academic disciplines related to the development of technology. The term is often used to emphasise the need to educate society and, in particular, young people, in science and technology.
A journal published only in printed form.
A subscription or hybrid journal where, under Plan S, the share of open access content is gradually increased and subscription costs are offset by revenue from fees for publishing services (to avoid duplicate payments), and the journal is clearly committed to transitioning to full open access within an agreed time frame.